Acne: symptoms, causes, and ways to get rid

Acne (acne) – multifactorial inflammation of the skin,
characterized by the presence of papules, nodes, comedones, pustules and other
polymorphic elements localized on the skin of the upper torso
– mostly on the face and neck. Ordinary acne is
The most common skin disease in developed countries.

They usually begin to appear during the period of sexual
maturation due to hormonal changes and may persist
in adulthood. Approximately 80-90% of young people in certain
degrees suffer from blemishes and 20–30% of these people apply for
medical care. The number of adults, especially women, is increasing.
who suffer from acne at a more mature age.


  • What is acne?
  • Symptoms of skin lesions
  • Causes of acne and skin lesions
  • Favorable factors for acne
  • Problem skin care

What is acne?

Affected skin becomes oily, open and closed comedones
(black and white acne) appear on the face, often on the neck, shoulders,
chest and back. With moderate and severe skin lesions
reddens, and inflamed papules (nodules) and pustules begin
develop. Ordinary acne, if they are constantly
appear again, can cause emotional stress
and lead to post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PSG) and / or
long-term scars.


Ordinary acne: what happens in the skin

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is smooth.
a discolored area on the skin that occurs as a reaction to such
inflammation, such as acne or eczema, especially in people with
dark skin tone. Over time, it may disappear, but
dermatological treatments and pigmentation procedures
help speed up this process.

Symptoms of skin lesions

There are three degrees of complexity of skin lesions:

  1. The lungs are also known as acne comedones or black.
  2. Acne moderate, or papulopustuly.
  3. High severity of acne, also known as conglobate
    acne or pseudoscrofuloderma.

Symptoms of Acne

There are four key factors that contribute to
acne formation:

Seborrhea This is an excess dermal formation
bacon Physiologically sebaceous glands secrete oily
a substance known as sebum that lubricates hair and

A number of factors, such as hormones, climate, some medicinal
drugs and genetic predisposition may provoke
increased sebum production.

Impaired sebum secretion can also cause seborrheic
dermatitis, general inflammation of the skin, during which the sebaceous
plots are formed film, painted in white or yellowish color,
usually in the ear canal or on the scalp.

Hyperkeratosis Hyperkeratosis is a thickening
outer horny layer of skin. Irregular peeling
dead and horny skin cells (corneocytes) clog the channels
sebaceous glands and disrupts or blocks the secretion of sebum.
When the skin produces excess sebum
(seborrhea), and dead skin cells remain on its outer layer
(hyperkeratosis), they can grow into the hair follicle and
to form a kind of wedge, “plug”, which leads to
bulging hair follicle and the formation of a closed comedo
(“white” acne) or, if the “cork” is close to the surface,
open comedo (black acne).


Microbial colonization

Bacteria that usually live on the skin and do not harm it
(propionibacteria), settle in the “traffic jams” of the follicles and cause
the occurrence of papules, pustules, nodules or cysts.

Inflammation Result of inflammatory processes
is redness and inflammation of the skin. In severe cases, the wall
follicle acne is broken in the late phase of inflammation. Lipids,
fatty acids, corneocytes, bacteria and cellular elements
are released, causing complex and deep inflammation in the adjacent

If you are unsure whether your symptoms are related to
Acne, the answer can give a skin analysis. For additional advice
consult a dermatologist or other specialist in matters

Causes of acne and skin lesions

We used to think that hormones play a major role in
the occurrence of acne, turning them into a teenage problem (although acne
may appear in people of different ages). Level up
androgens in both boys and girls during the period of sexual
maturation causes the formation of sebaceous glands more dermal
lard than the skin itself requires.

In the main physiological causes of acne, except
enhanced release of hormones, it is worth noting also increased
sensitivity of the sebaceous glands.

In most cases, acne disappears at the end of the process.
puberty. but, nevertheless, effective treatment is
necessary in order to prevent education
long-term scars.

The sebaceous glands are especially sensitive to hormones, so acne
may appear in women who are sensitive to hormonal changes
and conditions related to the hormonal state, such as
polycystic ovary. Psychological stress can also be
cause acne in adult women.

Bacteria. People with acne-prone skin
excess sebum formation creates an ideal environment in
which usually begin to multiply rapidly harmless acne-bacteria
(Propionibacterium acnes). It causes inflammation and education.
red or purulent spots.

This is not at all because the potential victims of acne
unscrupulous. On the contrary, excessive skin cleansing with
aggressive drugs are more likely to cause irritation,
rather than negligence.

Causes of Acne

Acne can lead to emotional disorders. Therefore
It is important to seek dermatological consultation at an early
stage of development of acne.

Usually harmless acne bacteria (Propionibacterium acnes) can
multiply due to excessive sebum production.

It is believed that a person’s genetic predisposition to
The development of acne also plays an important role. If both
parents had acne, the chances that a child would have them,

Similarly, if one or both parents suffered from acne
as an adult, the child will most likely have this
the problem.

Always tell your doctor about which medications
are now taking, seeking advice about caring for

Care. Some medicines and other pharmaceuticals
for example, steroids and lithium salts, can cause acne.

There are a lot of myths around the appearance of acne,
many of whom unfairly blame the patient – for example,
the formation of acne due to oversight of the skin, untidiness,
poor hygiene or poor nutrition, or because acne
can get infected. In addition, they do not match
Indeed, these myths can lead to unnecessary
emotional stress of patients who may already be suffering
from self-doubt or low self-esteem. Dermatologists can
to separatefacts from fiction.

Favorable factors for acne


Some of this list can, if not cause acne, then
aggravate their symptoms:

  • way of eating, when they eat an excess of certain
    carbohydrates (sugar and white flour);
  • excessive consumption of cow’s milk and dairy products
    (except cheese);
  • smoking;
  • makeup that clogs pores;
  • cosmetic skin care products that lead
    to the formation of comedones.

It is important to seek dermatological consultation at an early
stages of acne and even when symptoms are mild
expressed as effective and timely treatment can
prevent disease exacerbation and help avoid negative
effects such as long-term scars.

Some common rules that stand
stick to:

  • Use warm water and proper cleanser.
    (excessively hot or cold water can increase acne).
  • Let the spots be pulled in a natural way (squeezing
    may harm and lead to scarring).
  • Use skin care products that do not clog
  • Use cosmetics that do not clog pores.
  • Remove makeup at the end of the day.

In each case, it is important to adhere to the daily
skin care routine with the help of appropriate products.

Problem skin care

Although not easy to make so problematic and prone to
the appearance of acne, the skin has recovered completely, timely care with
using drugs, as well as non-drug care, can be
very effective in preventing the formation of new stains and

Depending on how your skin is damaged and prone
to the formation of acne, you can use a daily cleaner
for skin care, you may also be prescribed medical
drugs like retinoids, oral antibiotics or their
combinations. Some medical procedures may give a side effect.
dehydration effect, this can be avoided by
additional moisturizing care.

Daily care should also include proper
sunscreen for affected and prone to the formation of acne


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