Alphabet alphabet: what is hyaluronic acid?

Long life without old age was a long and cherished dream
of humanity. And here we are already half a step away from this event. And it became
possible thanks to revolutionary technologies and active
the use of hyaluronic acid in aesthetic medicine.

The term “hyaluronic acid” is familiar to every person who
at least a little interested in cosmetology. But many still
It is not clear why hyaluronic acid is the main
tool of modern cosmetology? What merit it is called for
star number 1?

Content

  • What is hyaluronic acid?
  • The role of hyaluronic acid in the body
  • Types of hyaluronic acid
  • We lose it. The reasons?
  • Hyaluronic acid in cosmetology
  • Hyaluronic Acid Injection Methods
  • Contraindications to the use of hyaluronic acid
  • Hyaluronic acid – truth and fiction

What is hyaluronic acid?

Hyaluronic acid is a polysaccharide from the family
glucosaminoglycans, which is a component of different
biological structures and fluids. It is contained in cells
humans, animals and even in the cells of certain bacteria. From lessons
Biology we know that man is made up of cells, the cells form
organs, and the space between cells and organs is filled
connective tissue.


Hyaluronic acid is a component of connective tissue and
is the main element of the extracellular matrix. Connecting
tissue can be in liquid and solid state, as well as in the form of a gel.
In its liquid state, hyaluronic acid is present in saliva,
in the cerebrospinal fluid, as well as in the synovial (fluid,
filling the cavity of the joints).

In the solid state, hyaluronate is part of the bones, and in the form of
gel, it is present in the vitreous body, cartilage and intercellular
fluid. In a large volume of hyaluronic acid is synthesized in the skin.
specific cells – fibroblasts. Fibroblasts are cells
connective tissue, whose main function is synthesis,
in addition to hyaluronic acid, collagen and elastin.

The main amount of hyaluronic acid is concentrated in
skin, it is located in the connective tissue of the dermis between
collagen and elastin fibers, as well as in the cells of the stratum corneum
corneocytes.  If we draw some kind of analogy and present our skin in
as a mattress, we can say that collagen and elastin are
springs, and hyaluronic acid is the foam rubber that fills
the space between them.

As we have noticed from the above, hyaluronic acid
is a natural component of our body. She is
synthesized in it and is involved in many biological processes.
Its role in the body is truly invaluable.

The role of hyaluronic acid in the body

Hyaluronic acid has remarkable properties. The most
important and valuable quality is the ability to bind and retain
water It is known that one molecule of hyaluronic acid binds
500 water molecules. It also has a so-called “effect
diapers “- the ability to not give away moisture from the skin.

Being an important component of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronate
provides cell life, filling the space between
them. Hyaluronic acid is involved in the process
proliferation (tissue growth by cell division), provides
transportation of oxygen, lymphocytes and other blood molecules and
nutrients to the site of tissue damage and foci
inflammation.


But few know that, besides their miraculous qualities,
hyaluronate plays an important role in the process of malignant migration
tumors and diffusion of streptococcal infection. For this reason
an excess of hyaluronic acid is as dangerous as its disadvantage: all
depends on the processes that occur in the body.

The production of hyaluronic acid in the body can be accelerated
or slow down, its amount may increase or decrease,
and this is not related to age. Beauticians are accustomed to believe
that a deficiency of hyaluronic acid in the body serves as a kind
an indicator of skin aging that allows you to prescribe drugs
its basis as a treatment and prevention of age-related changes
skin. But it is not.

The most important causes that contribute to the synthesis of hyaluronate –
it is inflammation, tissue damage, or injury. In places of damage
tissue, inflammation or injury significantly increases the amount of
hyaluronic acid.

Types of hyaluronic acid

Depending on the number of fragments that make up the molecule
hyaluronic acid, it may have a different mass and length.

  • Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid has a pronounced
    anti-inflammatory effect. Used in the treatment of
    trophic ulcers, burns, psoriasis and other skin diseases. This
    the type of hyaluronate is included in the composition of the means for external use:
    creams, tonics, emulsions and serums. They are capable without losing their
    properties that penetrate deep into the skin.

An important point to consider when
using preparations based on hyaluronic acid is
air humidity. When the humidity is low,
hyaluronic acid gives a reverse moisture effect. Top
layers of skin become dry
stretched mask on the face. To eliminate these discomfort,
must be applied immediately after hyaluronic acid
moisturizing serum or nourishing cream. Nutritious and
moisturizer creates a feeling of comfort and removes unpleasant
symptoms. Low molecular weight forms of hyaluronic acid are capable of
increase skin elasticity and partially fill the already formed
wrinkles.

  • The average molecular hyaluronic acid in injections with a mass from
    100 to 500 kDa, starts endogenous (self) synthesis
    hyaluronic acid and the process of neocollagenogenesis due to
    fibroblast stimulation. It is also actively used in
    medical purposes, in particular for the treatment of certain forms of arthritis and
    in ophthalmology for the treatment of eyes.
  • High molecular weight form of hyaluronate is successfully used in
    cosmetology for enhanced hydration of the skin and to replace the lost
    volumes. Due to its properties, it is able to hold large
    number of water molecules. High molecular weight hyaluronic acid from
    900 kDa and higher has large restructuring and
    antioxidant abilities. In addition, its deposition in
    tissues is two weeks, compared with low molecular weight
    hyaluronic acid, which is stored in the tissues for one week.
    The higher the molecular weight of hyaluronate, the better the morphogenesis
    polymer network, the more viscous the solution becomes at low
    concentrations. This allows you to cover a large area of ​​solid skin.
    moisturizing film.

We lose it. The reasons?

Over time, the process of the breakdown of hyaluronic acid in the body
prevails over its synthesis. What is the reason for this? how
this is strange, but contrary to the dominant conviction,
age plays a dominant role in this process. the main
the reason is skin damage by type A UV and
B. Under the harmful effects of UV radiation occurs
skin cell damage and reduced hyaluronic synthesis
acid.


Simultaneously with a decrease in hyaluronic acid in the body,
the processes of its decay are intensified, while the decay products
accumulate and are removed from the skin very slowly. In fact,
This process is a defensive reaction of the organism, since
UV radiation is the main cause of carcinogenesis, and hyaluronate
participates in the migration and screening of tumor cells.

The second important factor contributing to the degradation of hyaluronic acid
acids – the enzyme hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase breaks down
hyaluronic acid, and this process is continuous.
The main part of hyaluronate breaks down and is restored
again during the day. Full update of the total hyaluronic volume
acid occurs within 3-4 days. And this implies a breakup and
New hyaluronate synthesis in all body tissues. Cause of decay
may be:

  • age;
  • ultraviolet radiation;
  • unbalanced nutrition;
  • bad habits (nicotine, alcohol);
  • psycho-emotional state;
  • taking certain medicines.

These reasons not only affect the amount of synthesized
hyaluronic acid, but also on its structure. Reduction in quantity
hyaluronic acid helps to reduce water in the composition
some cellular structures and the first signs
aging.

In addition, natural age processes can lead to
an increase in hyaluronic acid in the dermis, which can be
the cause of intercellular edema on the one hand and dehydration
superficial layers of the skin, on the other hand.

All these processes have a negative effect on the skin. She is
becomes dry, flabby, loses elasticity and firmness, on it
numerous wrinkles are formed. And as a result: reflected in
The mirror is not at all happy and becomes a source of chagrin.

Hyaluronic acid in cosmetology

In cosmetology, two industrial types of hyaluronic are used.
acids:

  • animal origin;
  • based on biotechnological synthesis.

For a long time in cosmetology used hyaluronic acid
animal origin. It was obtained by crushing organs.
animals (crests of mature roosters, umbilical cords) in
the result of a two-phase cleaning. In this drug remained
animal proteins and peptides, which contributed to the development
allergic reactions and drug rejection.


The body has positioned this form of hyaluronate as an alien
substance and started the reaction to eliminate the alien. All this,
naturally influenced the aesthetic result of the procedure. And instead
long-awaited rejuvenation, added extra trouble to eliminate
complications arising. Nowadays animal hyaluronic acid
origin is almost never used.

But science does not stand still. New technologies are being created and
drugs that can completely minimize the side effects
complications and risks. Therefore, now in cosmetology use
hyaluronic acid, obtained by biochemical synthesis.

For these purposes, bacterial cultures are used, and specifically
plant-based streptococci (wheat
broth). This method is based on the ability of some
microorganisms synthesize hyaluronic acid. Biochemical
the method allows to achieve a large amount of substance with the desired
molecular weight and acceptable structure.

Directly in the fillers used:

  • stabilized (native, natural);
  • unstabilized (chemically modified).

The action of hyaluronic acid depends on its type.
Each species has its own advantages and its own effects.
Of great importance is the degree of purification of the drug. Some
hyaluronate-based preparations contain additional substances in
in the form of vitamins, amino acids, biological active substances. Other
are “pure”, they contain only hyaluronic
acid, which acts as a separate component. Most
Stabilized hyaluronic acid is considered effective.


Preparations based on stabilized hyaluronic acid for a long time.
are stored in the skin, form the basis of the preparations of the hydro reserve and
launch regenerative processes in the dermis.

Hyaluronic acid molecule is very sensitive. She keenly
reacts to chemical modification: thermal or mechanical.
For this reason, it should be properly maintained in the process.
chemical reactions. Stabilized hyaluronic acid
obtained by the method of biochemical synthesis, followed by a process
stitching, which is called stabilization (forming
intersecting crosslinks between hyaluronic acid molecules).

Hyaluronic acid molecules are stitched in order to
prevent their rapid degradation. Such hyaluronic acid
demonstrates long clinical effects when it is introduced into the skin.
After crosslinking, the obtained gels are cleaned, which
is a very painstaking process and is crucial
factor in the pricing of drugs stabilizing
hyaluronic acid.

Depending on the level of stabilization, different gels are produced.
viscosity to eliminate a variety of aesthetic problems: little
stabilized – to eliminate fine wrinkles, more
stabilized and more viscous – for the correction of nasolabial folds
and recovery of lost volumes.

Stabilized hyaluronic acid is used in contouring
practice and when reinforcing the face, since this type of hyaluronate
holds volume well. That is, when you need to fill up the lost
volumes, for example, cheeks, push nasolabial folds from the outside,
simulate the facial contour and fill in the dips on the face, used
stabilized hyaluronic acid.

Unstabilized hyaluronic acid is used in
mesotherapy and biorevitalization to hydrate tissues and improve
skin elasticity.

Hyaluronic Acid Injection Methods

Injection methods and techniques based on drugs with
hyaluronic acid give fantastic results. But not all
hyaluronic acid improves skin characteristics.
In order to start the regeneration mechanisms in the dermis it is necessary
compliance with several conditions:

  1. Hyaluronate must be stabilized (natural,
    native).
  2. Molecular weight of hyaluronate should exceed 1 million
    Dalton.
  3. The concentration of hyaluronic acid in the preparation should exceed
    15 mg per milliliter.
  4. Hyaluronic acid should be a viscous consistency.

If these conditions are not met, then fibroblasts do not
are activated and the rejuvenation process does not start.


Preparations based on hyaluronic acid are used in
following injection techniques:

  • biorevitalization;
  • mesotherapy;
  • bioreparation;
  • redermalization;
  • contour plastic;
  • bio-reinforcement.

Biorevitalization is the most popular and effective procedure.
in cosmetology. It is based on the introduction of hyaluronic acid into
middle layers of skin. Used in all cases of age
skin wilting, in the treatment of acne and postpartum stretch marks.

Mesotherapy – the introduction of hyaluronic acid and cocktails on her
based on multiple injections.

Bioreparation – the introduction of hyaluronic acid with vitamins,
amino acids and peptides.

Redermalization – injection of hyaluronic acid and
sodium succinate (succinic acid derivative).

Contour plastics – replenishment of lost volumes with
hyaluronic gel.

Facial bio-reinforcement – restoration of the contour outline of the oval
face hyaluronic biogel.

Contraindications to the use of hyaluronic acid

Despite the fact that hyaluronic acid is synthesized by our
organism, and modified drugs based on it have
a high degree of cleaning up, yet there are cases of rejection
drug and the occurrence of allergic reactions. This is due to
the fact that it is impossible to completely clear the resulting drug from
content of foreign protein impurities. It is these impurities
cause unwanted side effects and complications. Also
additional introduction of hyaluronic acid into the body can
cause unintended consequences since it plays a big role
in the migration of malignant tumors and the spread of various
infections. There are a number of serious contraindications that
should be considered. Do not use drugs based on
hyaluronic acid in the following cases:


  • autoimmune and oncological diseases;
  • infectious and chronic diseases in the stage
    aggravations;
  • pregnancy and lactation;
  • inflammation of the skin on the face;
  • individual intolerance to the drug.

Failure to observe this caution may result in severe
the consequences.

Hyaluronic acid – truth and fiction

Any miracle substance causes a lot of controversy and interpretation, in
which is very little truth, but a lot of fiction. Unnecessarily
impressionable natures are attributed to hyaluronic acid then
magical and magical properties, then everywhere are looking for a dirty trick and hidden
conspiracies Consider some well-established myths.

Myth one: injections with hyaluronic acid cause
addictive.

This is not true. “Get hooked on the needle” can only be from a psychological
points of view. When a patient uses effective cosmetic
drugs, he notices how his appearance improves. it
the state he likes, his self-esteem rises, he begins to
get used to it. Increasing desire to look better and better. But
It has nothing to do with hyaluronic acid. Hyaluronic acid
in creams acts only on the surface layer of the epidermis. AT
Injections of hyaluronic acid stimulates its own cells,
returning them to the natural processes that they had forgotten
as the skin matures. And after the expiration of hyaluronic
acid breaks down in the body and disappears completely. She’s not
may cause addiction.

The second myth: a large molecular weight of hyaluronic
acid does not allow it to penetrate the skin.

Partly true. If we are talking about cosmetic preparations in the form of
creams, emulsions, serums, it is. These drugs are designed to
“work” in the upper layers of the epidermis. They are not medicine and
should not penetrate the skin barrier. But the fact is that scientists
long ago learned how to break up a hyaluronic acid molecule and create
its low molecular weight form. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid,
contained in the cream, it is able to penetrate the skin.


The third myth: hyaluronic acid injections
promotes an increase in intraocular pressure.

Hyaluronic acid is part of many biological
fluids, it is a component of our body, is present
in many organs, in particular is part of the vitreous body.
For the first time in history, hyaluronic acid was used in
ophthalmology. For this reason, it can not increase
intraocular pressure.

Myth Four: beauty shots with botulin and hyaluronic
acid is the same thing.

Very illiterate statement. Botulin is a neurotoxin,
the waste product of bacteria clostridium botulinum. Preparations
on the basis of botulinum paralyzes the muscle, not allowing it to contract. is he
does not affect the skin mechanisms, does not start the process
cell regeneration, and only temporarily relaxes the muscle and thereby
helps to eliminate wrinkles. Hyaluronic acid enters
the composition of our body, it starts the processes of regeneration and
activating the cells of the dermis, moisturizes the skin, replenishes lost
volumes. These are two completely different substances, they have different functions and
roles

Fifth Myth: in winter it is not recommended to use creams with
hyaluronic acid.

A very common misconception. It is necessary to protect the skin in any
time of year, especially in winter when dry air conditioned
air and hot air from batteries in the rooms contribute
dryness and dehydration of the skin. Just need to know that
Moisturizer is applied for half an hour before entering the frost. AT
this period of the year must be strengthened both to nourish and moisturize
skin

The sixth myth: injections with hyaluronic acid pull
moisture from deep skin layers.

Of course, it is not. Everything happens exactly the opposite.
Hyaluronic acid moisturizes, nourishes the skin with moisture. In our
In the body, the breakdown and synthesis of hyaluronic acid occurs every
day. And every three to four days, the amount is completely replenished.
hyaluronic acid in all systems and organs. Injections or creams
not able to “pull” the water from the deep layers of the skin also because
that hyaluronic acid has a “diaper effect” and does not give
moisture from the skin.

In modern cosmetology, a powerful tool appeared –
hyaluronic acid. She became the subject of serious scientific
research and began to be actively used in aesthetic
medicine. Over the past few years, hyaluronic acid has proven
recognized throughout the world. Based on it built
A whole industry of anti-aging technologies and drugs. But in order
in order not to fall into the trap of one’s own passions, one must
familiar with its therapeutic effects, methods of production and
views. After all, even the most miraculous drug can bring both
benefit and harm.

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