Aspergillosis: causes, treatment and prognosis

Aspergillosis is a term that unites the group.
diseases caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is
infectious diseases of mycotic etiology that affect
most often the respiratory system, central nervous system, eyes
and skin.  In the development of this pathology plays a big role
immune system. So with a depressed immune state
systems may occur disseminated (widespread
in any organ or in the whole body) aspergillosis. And at
immunodeficiency aspergillosis can even lead to
lethal.

Content

  • Causes
  • Types of Aspergillosis
  • Symptoms
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis and prevention

Causes

As mentioned above, the cause of aspergillosis is
fungi of the genus Aspergillus. A variety of fungi of the genus Aspergillus
cause various pathologies. In particular, Aspergillus fungi
clavatus and Aspergillus niger are more likely to cause allergic diseases,
Aspergillus flavus is a common pathogen for humans.
Aspergillus niger is able to provoke otomycosis and, along with
Aspergillus terreus, colonize the open parts of the human body.

Patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABLA)
suffer from chronic atopic dermatitis (are atopic) and
have a genetically determined T cell response.

Types of Aspergillosis

porazhenija-kozhi-u-bolnyh-aspergillezom


Depending on the distribution of aspergillosis in the body
the following types of it are distinguished:

  • endogenous aspergillosis by the type of autoimmune infection;
  • exogenous aspergillosis, which is transmitted by airborne droplets and
    food by;
  • transplacental aspergillosis, which is transmitted through
    placenta from mother to child (vertical transmission
    infections).

Depending on the location of mycosis in the body, there are
following forms:

  • bronchopulmonary;
  • conjunctival;
  • dermatological;
  • bone:
  • ENT organs;
  • septic.

Symptoms

Symptoms of this disease depend on which organ was
amazed. For example, symptoms of a pulmonary system.
manifest in the form of general fatigue, weakness, cough with sputum,
which contains serous lumps with aspergillus and blood streaks.
The disease is of the type of bronchitis, but if you use the usual
with bronchitis therapy, the treatment will not succeed. In that
case, the disease progresses and may develop aspergillous
pneumonia, which has very serious symptoms. In this case,
the patient is experiencing fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough with
purulent sputum in which colonies are also found
aspergillus. The patient also experiences general weakness, malaise,
weight loss and sweating, especially at night.

Sometimes it happens that a disease is diagnosed
directly at X-ray examination, but at the same time
no clinical symptoms. Sometimes hemoptysis and
pulmonary hemorrhages are the only symptoms
aspergillus pneumonia.

Aspergillosis of the eye manifests classic symptoms
conjunctivitis: patients complain of itching around the eyes, burning,
lacrimation, purulent discharge. Observed swelling and hyperemia
eye, blurred vision.

Aspergillosis of the nose, throat and ears manifests as an itch in
larynx, ears and nose. Also, patients feel discomfort in the throat,
pain and dry cough. At night, fluid escapes from the ear,
which leaves marks on the pillow.

With the defeat of the skin fungi Aspergillus observed
atopic dermatitis allergic etiology. Also on the skin
spots and nodules appear.

Aspergillosis of the gastrointestinal tract manifests classic
symptoms of dysbiosis: loose stools, nausea, vomiting,
discomfort in the abdominal cavity.

With the defeat of the cardiovascular system, development is observed.
endocarditis. Patients experience shortness of breath, weakness, chronic
fatigue, fever, weight loss and night sweats. Often
this form of aspergillosis develops in patients with artificial
heart valves.

Generalized (septic) form of aspergillosis develops on
background reduction of the protective functions of the body, that is,
immunity. In this case, the disease takes an acute form, so
how aspergillosis spores are carried with blood throughout the body,
forming colonies in various organs. The patient is experiencing
fever, chills, delirium, shortness of breath. Vital may be affected
organs, up to kidney or liver failure. it
a form of aspergillosis very often leads to terminal
condition

aspergillez


Diagnostics

Diagnosis of the disease is carried out by
clinical and epidemiological picture. Final diagnosis
requires:

  • microscopic analysis of the material (sputum, scrapings
    mucous membranes, smears, prints);
  • serological blood tests;
  • total blood count to determine: the number of leukocytes,
    eosinophils, increased ROE;
  • x-ray examination of the lungs, computer
    tomograph (CT) of internal organs;
  • immunological studies to determine
    immunodeficiency states.

Differential diagnosis is carried out with other mycotic
infections, such as candidiasis, lung cancer, tuberculosis,
abscess

Treatment

The treatment of this disease is carried out on several
directions:

  1. Conservative drug therapy includes the use of
    antimycotic and hormonal (glucocorticosteroids)
    drugs. Sometimes severely ill with fever
    hospitalized, they need bed rest, rest, full
    nutrition. For skin and mucous membrane lesions
    treatment of affected areas using antifungal ointments and
    creams.
  2. Surgical therapy is a radical treatment that
    consist in removing the affected lung lobe (lobectomy). The
    The method helps to avoid the recurrence of the disease.
  3. Restorative therapy, which includes immunotherapy,
    vitamin therapy and treatment with mineral complexes.

Do not self-medicate because this pathology is very
insidious. Fungal spores have a certain resistance to
treatment, and the generalized form of the disease often leads to
death. The treatment is delayed for a long time, sometimes on
it takes years and even decades. Therefore, in case of any suspicion
mycotic lesion or long-lasting pulmonary pathology
immediate medical attention is required.

Prognosis and prevention

The prognosis of the disease is not favorable in all cases. Mortality
from pulmonary forms of aspergillosis is one third of all cases of illness
and in patients with immunodeficiency (with AIDS) is half of all
cases. Generalized (septic) form of aspergillosis has
unfavorable prognosis.

Preventive measures include measures to improve
sanitary and hygienic standards both at home and on
production. In the workplace, it is necessary to improve the working life,
use by workers at risk,
personal protective equipment (respirators), as well as their
regular screening for mycotic
diseases.

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