Basal cell carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma – malignant
skin disease that arises from the cells of the basal layer
epithelium. Basal cell carcinoma is one of
varieties of skin cancer. Basalioma is most often localized in
areas of the head, neck, on the wings of the nose, much less often on
limbs, back, stomach. In most cases, this
pathology develops among owners of fair skin, and its frequency
increases with age. Basalioma usually occurs in open
skin areas that are most often exposed to ultraviolet


  • Causes and types of carcinoma
  • Symptoms and development of basal cell carcinoma
  • How to recognize basalioma?
  • Treatment of basal cell carcinoma
  • Prognosis and prevention of basal cell carcinoma

Causes and types of carcinoma

It is known that the epidermis includes several layers, and
basal layer is its foundation. After all, this is the only layer
skin, which consists of living cells, has a full structure
and capable of dividing.  When basal cell carcinoma is cancerous
cells form in the basal layer and are located in
deep layers of skin. In the process of rebirth, they acquire
propensity for unlimited division, produce unusual
they are proteins and lose their ability to function normally. TO
In addition, tumor cells produce substances that contribute to
growth of new vessels that are beginning to supply nutrient
substances growing tissue.


The main reason for the development of basal cell carcinoma is long-term
exposure to ultraviolet rays on the skin. Constant impact
ultraviolet leads to damage to the structure of DNA, which in its
queue causes mutational processes in the cell and provokes cancer
skin. There are also a number of additional reasons that can
provoke a disease:

  • hereditary factor;
  • ultraviolet irradiation;
  • effects of carcinogenic substances on the skin;
  • age-related skin changes;
  • ionizing radiation.

Basal cell carcinoma has several subspecies:

  1. Nodular carcinoma, which forms a single node.
  2. Superficial carcinoma affects only the upper layers
  3. Infiltrative carcinoma capable of germinating into subject
    organs and tissues.
  4. Basal – squamous carcinoma, in which part of the tumor
    filled with keratin.
  5. Microscopic carcinoma, which consists of several small

Symptoms and development of basal cell carcinoma

The main symptom of basal cell carcinoma is painful
neoplasm that does not heal, bleeds and is covered
scabs. This is an unremarkable little bump,
the surface of which is covered with small surface vessels or
with a brown crust in the center of the tumor. Sometimes basalioma happens
flesh-colored or brown, flat coated
scabs. At the beginning of the disease, the tumor is practically not
increases in size and grows so slowly that it does not
perceived by the patient as a malignant disease. Can
go through the months, and even years until the cancer will be felt. Sometimes
basalioma can heal, allowing the patient to think about
benign course of the disease. Actually alternating
bleeding and healing are a major symptom of basal cell
carcinomas. This type of skin cancer is the most common
a kind of malignant disease that never
spreads (does not metastasize) to other organs and parts
body. However, basal cell carcinoma can germinate in
surrounding tissue, destroying them.

How to recognize basalioma?

There are a number of signs that allow you to diagnose
basal cell carcinoma.

  1. Alternation of bleeding and healing.
  2. The roughness of the boundaries of the affected areas.
  3. Formations resemble pearl grains.
  4. The tumor has a soft consistency to the touch.
  5. Painful sensations when lightly pressed.
  6. Scale formation.

Launched forms of carcinoma are very difficult to treat, in this
the case involves nearby tissues and organs: eyeballs,
ears, bones and even the lining of the brain. After removal
basal cell carcinoma possible relapses of the disease, as part
neoplasms may be localized within scars, which
formed after surgery.


A dermato-oncologist diagnoses the disease after
patient examinations and anamnesis. For the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma
also conduct histological studies, biopsy with
cytological analysis of the affected tissue that accurately
confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

To date, there are the following methods of treatment
basal cell carcinoma:

  • laser method;
  • cryogenic method;
  • surgical intervention;
  • radiation therapy;
  • electrocoagulation;
  • anti-cancer drugs;
  • Mos method;
  • photodynamic method.

More recently, this type of cancer was removed by surgical
method in combination with radiation therapy, which was used in all
cases, especially when the tumor was localized in hard-to-reach
places, for example, on the eyelids and in the corners of the eyes. These days good
The effect gives the method of laser therapy. The tumor is not removed with a scalpel,
a laser with carbon dioxide. Mosa’s method is also effective.
the essence of which is to remove the tumor layer by layer with
histological analysis of each layer. Cryodestruction method
carried out using liquid nitrogen that freezes
tumor that leads to the death of cancer cells.

Electrocoagulation method is performed using a curette
which is scraping the tumor, followed by cauterization of the bottom and edges
wounds. Therapeutic treatment with medication usually
carry out in case of contraindications for all of the above

Prognosis and prevention of basal cell carcinoma

The prognosis is favorable. This type of skin cancer is good.
amenable to treatment and completely cured by modern methods,
since it almost never gives metastases. However for full
treatment should be promptly diagnosed basaloma and not
to prevent severe disease. This may lead to
constant recurrence and adverse outcome.

Prevention of the disease is to protect the skin from harmful
exposure to ultraviolet sunscreens with high
protection factor.

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