Black acanthosis is a very rare dermatosis,
which is characterized by the appearance of a thickening of the stratum corneum on the skin
(keratosis), age spots and papillomatosis. Affected
patches are located in the area of large skin folds: in the inguinal and
axillary folds, as well as in the back of the neck. Visually
black acanthosis is characterized by thickening of the upper layer of the epidermis
and hyperpigmentation of the black-brown color of the warty type.
The term “black acanthosis” includes several diseases with
skin pigmentation disorders:
- papillary melasma;
- black keratosis;
- papillary-pigmental dystrophy of the skin.
- Causes of black keratosis
- Symptoms and forms of the disease
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of black acanthosis
- Prediction and prevention of the disease
Causes of black keratosis
The causes of this pathology is not fully identified.
Many experts believe that the disease causes genetic
predisposition hereditary nature. However, it was exactly
an interrelation of black acanthosis with malignant
diseases of internal organs. According to numerous
malignant disease of the internal organs
identified in patients in 50-100% with black acanthosis. Scientists this
associated with both numerous biochemical reactions,
occurring in the body, and with dysfunction in the work of the immune
system. Moreover, the development of cancer differs in
sex in men and women. For example, in men more often
prostate cancer, cancer of the stomach and pancreas develops, and
women ovarian and breast cancer. With equal frequency as
men and women develop lung cancer. Black acanthosis,
concomitant cancer is called malignant
Also provoke the development of acanthosis can endocrine
metabolic disorders endogenous or exogenous
insulin. This process is called insulin resistance. Statistics
confirms the development of black acanthosis in people with obesity and
cellulite The cause of this disease can also
be congenital states that are accompanied by mental
inferiority and metabolic disorders. So black
acanthosis is often observed in Misher syndrome (hereditary
pathology characterized by a combination of black acanthosis,
dementia, diabetes mellitus) and with ore syndrome (congenital
ichthyosis, dwarfism, infantilism, total alopecia).
Long-term use of hormonal preparations containing
estrogens and corticosteroids may trigger black
Symptoms and forms of the disease
The main symptoms of this disease is keratosis.
(thickening of the skin), hyperpigmentation and papillary growths
on the affected areas. Affected areas are localized
symmetrically, most often in the inguinal and axillary folds, in
locations of the elbow and knee flexion, in the interglacial area, in
areas of the back of the neck and under the mammary glands. Very rarely
the disease develops on the mucous membranes of the mouth and in the area
genitals. The disease begins suddenly with the advent
yellow spots that subsequently become very dark, almost
black color. On the affected areas, the skin thickens, becomes
dry and rough, with dense rows of papillary growths that
gives it a hilly-warty appearance. Papillary growths
superficially resemble genital warts.
Growth of papillomatosis rashes also develops on mucous membranes.
the membranes of the mouth, but in this case is not observed pigmentary dystrophy
mucous membranes. With the defeat of the tongue, it gets rough –
wrinkled surface. Sometimes black spots look quite
unattractive, as there is a feeling of a dirty, unwashed body,
which in turn can cause discomfort in the patient
Usually with black acanthosis there are no subjective sensations:
patients do not complain of pain, itching or irritation of the skin. Very rarely
some patients have a slight itching and tingling sensation.
affected areas. The degree of symptoms depends on the form
diseases. There are three main forms of black
- benign (juvenile);
- malignant (parneoplastic);
Benign form develops most often due to
genetic or endocrine pathologies. This form of black acanthosis
is congenital and manifests itself in childhood or adolescence
age Another name for the disease is juvenile acanthosis. This
the form is characterized by less skin lesion, absence or
instability of symptoms, some symptoms may occur,
others are not. This type of acanthosis may stop in progress.
after puberty or disappear altogether.
Malignant form develops as a result of cancerous
pathologies of internal organs and, as a rule, develops faster and
more intense than other forms of acanthosis. Symptoms appear
spontaneously and rapidly progressing. With this form
acanthosis may be affected by the mucous membranes of the internal
organs: the vagina or the digestive tract. On the back sides
the papules of the wart-like type, the body or
red-brown color. Papules have a tendency to merge between
itself, forming plaques and extensive conglomerates thickened and
rough skin. In case of remission of malignant disease
remission is also observed in areas affected by black
acanthosis, but in case of relapse, symptoms recur.
Pseudo-acantosis is a consequence of obesity, especially in
women and has a direct connection with endocrine disorders (in
most cases due to ovarian dysfunction). Obese people
Symptoms of black acanthosis appear in the area of large folds.
Papillomatous rashes, as a rule, are not observed or their
units. The disease completely disappears after normalization of weight and
eliminate the causes of obesity.
Diagnosis of the disease
The doctor diagnoses the disease – a dermatologist by clinical
symptoms. Diagnosis is not difficult, since this
pathology has specific symptoms and manifestations. But in
some cases require differential diagnosis of black
acanthosis with the following diseases:
- Daria’s disease;
- Addison’s disease.
The final diagnosis is established after
histological examination of the biopsy. Sample fabric with black
acanthosis contains a large accumulation of keratotic cells and an increased
pigment accumulation. In case of suspected malignant form
acanthosis is necessary to conduct a study of the internal organs
subject of detection of cancer. The patient is directed to
ultrasound (MRI), magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI), computed tomography (CT) and blood tests
(oncomarkers). If a benign form has been identified or
pseudo-acanthosis, then the patient is referred for consultation to
an endocrinologist who will prescribe a comprehensive study
aimed at identifying violations of the hormonal or
Treatment of black acanthosis
The treatment of this disease is carried out symptomatically, as
most often acanthosis is a consequence of disruption in work
internal organs that require separate therapy. Shown
intramuscular administration of interferon inductors (reaferon, neovir)
and antiviral drugs (amixin). Must be assigned
tonic therapy using vitamin complexes
(especially group B), iron preparations, retinol, ascorbic
acid. Among the topical agents – the use of antiseptic
creams and anti-inflammatory ointments. Good therapeutic
effect have bath with potassium permanganate.
Be sure to eliminate the root cause of the main
diseases that provoked the appearance of black acanthosis. In that
In case of acanthosis, the symptoms will go away by themselves or they will reduce their
intensity. Depending on the identified primary disease
therapeutic tactics are built: hormone replacement is prescribed to patients
therapy (corticosteroids and estrogens) that will eliminate the symptoms
inflammation, insulin in case of diabetes, antibiotics in
case of bacterial infection and neurotrophic intake
Prediction and prevention of the disease
The prognosis of the disease depends on its form. With pseudo-acanthosis and
benign form of black acanthosis, the prognosis is favorable.
If the correction of conditions that provoked the disease
improvements are noticed, the symptoms of black acanthosis can
regress or disappear completely. Teenagers after
puberty, the symptoms of acanthosis also tend to
regression or complete recovery occurs.
With a malignant form of acanthosis, the prognosis is most often
unfavorable because of the rapid metastasis of the tumor. Even
with full treatment, the patient’s life expectancy is
no more than two years. Therefore, when detecting the first signs of dark
pigmentation on the skin is an urgent need to consult a doctor for
accurate diagnosis of the causes that caused it.
Disease prevention consists of regular check-ups and
visits to a dermatologist. It is also necessary to monitor the mass.
body regularly monitor blood glucose levels without
self-medicate and not take a long time
drugs in high doses.