Chloasma: causes, treatment and prevention

Chloasma is a primary focal hyperpigmentation.
skin. Brown spots are most often located on the face and can
have a different shape and size. At its core, chloasma refers to
limited melasma (a disease that is characterized by
excessive deposition of melanin in the skin). With this pathology
the pigment is capable of accumulating in excess in the epidermis and in
derma. Chloasma is most common in pregnant women, as well as
in women who suffer from urogenital inflammation
system. Chloasma advances other species in frequency
pigmentation that occurs on the skin (freckles, age
age spots, pigmentation as a result of systemic and skin


  • Causes of disease
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Diagnosis of chloasma
  • Chloasma treatment
  • Chloasma prevention

Causes of disease

The main reason for the development of this pathology are disorders in
the work of the hormonal system. For this reason, the disease
occurs most often in women during pregnancy, since
this time there is an increased level of estrogen hormones in
blood. Chloasma also develops in individuals with genital pathology.
and kidney disease. After pregnancy, hyperpigmentation is more common.
just disappears without a trace, but in rare cases it remains
forever and ever. Pregnancy is one of the causes of chloasma
however, the mechanisms of chloasma development in other cases are not entirely clear and
with other systemic pathologies. Experts call a big
the number of factors capable of provoking


  • pregnancy (most often);
  • period of hormonal adjustment in the body (menopause, sexual
    maturation, etc.)
  • gynecological diseases;
  • systemic pathological conditions;
  • diseases of the liver and biliary tract;
  • prolonged exposure to the sun and exposure to UV rays;
  • long-term use of hormonal drugs;
  • some infectious diseases (tuberculosis, malaria);
  • exposure to skin chemicals when used
    household chemicals;
  • effects on the skin of essential oils and other ingredients
    in cosmetic compositions.

Symptoms of the disease

Chloasma pigmentation can manifest as single small
as well as extensive lesions covering most
faces. The color of the spots varies from light yellow to dark.
brown. The edges of the spots are uneven, prone to merge. Stains at
Chloasma does not cause pain, itching or peeling. Their
favorite localization on the forehead, cheeks above the upper lip or
around the mouth. Chloasma around the mouth is also called peri-rotary.
dermatitis. This form of chloasma usually develops in women and is difficult.
treatable. The hue of the spots may change: they
they become lighter or darker, but do not completely disappear.

Another manifestation of chloasma is dyschromia. Dyschromia is
impaired hyperpigmentation of the skin, which is caused by
multiple factors. There is another kind of chloasma that
called “bronze chloasma”. This form of chloasma is found in
people of Asia.

Diagnosis of chloasma

Chloasma is diagnosed by visual inspection. However for
accurate diagnosis and identification of its causes,
A whole range of additional surveys is needed for adjacent
specialists. First of all, conduct a study of the liver and
gastrointestinal tract, blood biochemistry, liver function tests, ultrasound
liver and abdominal cavity, gastroscopy, dysbacteriosis tests.
Women need to undergo a gynecological examination and
consultation with a gynecologist. Differentiate Chloasma with Mongolian
spot (congenital pigmentation of blue-gray color), borderline
pigmented nevus and also a giant pigment nevus (with
large sizes of chloasma).

Chloasma treatment

Treatment of chloasma depends on the reasons for the hyperpigmentation.
skin. Therefore, the treatment of this disease is carried out jointly by doctors.
different specialties. For example, if the cause of
hyperpigmentation became diseases of the genitourinary system then
accordingly, the treatment is carried out by a gynecologist or urologist. With the elimination
the causes of the disease, age spots turn pale, and then completely
disappear. Sometimes the spots may disappear for a while and then again
appear with the following relapse of the disease.

To restore pigmentation it is necessary to use ascorbic
acid in the form of tablets, as well as in the form of injections. Recommended
use inside vitamin complex aevit, folic acid,
Riboflavin, the drug methionine. A good effect gives a course of injections.
vitamins B2 and B1. As for local treatment, to eliminate
pigmentation using bleaching agents. It should be noted that
“old” spots indicate a chronic process. In this case
it will be very difficult to remove stains and most likely will be required
serious comprehensive measures. “Fresh” stains are easy to remove with
using Melan and Akhromin bleaching agents, hydroquinone and
perhydrol ointment, as well as by other means specifically
cooked in a pharmacy for individual use.

To eliminate pigmentation very effective methods of hardware
cosmetology. Chemical retinoic peeling can not only
remove age spots and give face freshness, but also rejuvenate
him. With the help of dermabrasion, you can give your skin a smooth tone, return
good complexion and healthy pigmentation.

Also in the case of hyperpigmentation, local use is advisable.
exfoliating means. In modern cosmetology is widely
The following exfoliating agents are used: benzoic
acid, lactic acid, mercury salts, bodyaga.


If the cause of hyperpigmentation is ultraviolet
radiation, then the patient is prescribed aminoquinoline
(antimalarial) drugs that are able to provide
photo desensitizing effect. Strictly prohibited use
essential oils in the composition of the perfume or cosmetic composition.
Since essential oils contain substances that increase
skin sensitivity to ultraviolet.

It is not recommended to self-treat chloasma, so
how to first establish the cause of pigmentation. Also not worth it
resort to unverified folk remedies. Treatment
hyperpigmentation of folk remedies can only be done with
approval of the attending physician.

Many experts advise against staining if they are barely
noticeable. In this case, enhanced depigmentation may occur.
skin areas, which in itself will look like
cosmetic defect. For this reason, it should be ensured that
pigment spots just turned pale and lost their sharp outlines.

Chloasma prevention

Disease prevention is to identify the causes of chloasma
and adopting follow-up treatment tactics. During the course
The treatment should observe some limitations:

  • do not sunbathe in the sun;
  • do not allow direct sunlight on
  • use natural sun protection: hats, glasses,
  • use high-risk sunscreen
    SPF protection of at least 50;
  • protect the skin from overheating and temperature changes;
  • during the course of treatment take a break in cosmetology and
    other procedures.

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