Collagen – the protein of our youth

Important components of connective tissue are collagen,
elastin and hyaluronic acid. The amount of these substances in it right
in proportion to the youth of our skin. Why? Collagen is a protein
forming the basis of connective tissue ensuring it
strength and elasticity. Elastin is another type of protein that is responsible for
elasticity of tissues, allowing them to recover. BUT
hyaluronic acid is a gel-like filling substance
the space between them. It can be said that these are three whales, on
which is worth the youth and beauty of our skin.

Content

  • What is collagen
  • Collagen in the human body
  • Collagen Types
  • Collagen in cosmetology
  • How does collagen work in cosmetics?
  • Why do we lose collagen?
  • How to restore collagen in the skin
    • The use of basic amino acids of collagen
    • SPRS-therapy (autologous cell based therapy
      fibroblasts)

What is collagen

From a chemical point of view, collagen is a fibrillar protein,
having a right-handed spiral structure of three
amino acid chains. Amino acid chains are woven together in
form harness and stronger than steel. And all because the composition
collagen molecule enters the structural protein tropocollagen, which
gives it unprecedented elasticity and strength. Thanks to its
the spiral-shaped collagen allows connective tissue to remain
in a good condition. And from it are the outer covers of all
organs.

Collagen is part of the blood vessels of the circulatory system, bone,
cartilaginous and dental tissue in the tendons and ligaments. Can
to say that we are literally saturated with collagen. But especially a lot
its in the skin: 70% of the total protein is found
in her. kollagen


Collagen in the human body

Collagen in the body performs certain functions:

  • protective;
  • supporting;
  • regenerating;
  • together with elastin promotes elasticity and strength
    tissue.

Thanks to its unique properties, collagen “sticks together” everything
cell complexes. If not for him, then our body would literally
crumbled into atoms. Collagen performs the function of some unique
plasticine.

Collagen Types

Collagen can be of different types. It has a different structure and
origin. Today, there are 19 known types that
differ from each other in the structure of the peptide chains, the role and
location in the body. Types of collagen forming a triple
spiral, much greater than about 30. They differ from each other
degree of modification and amino acid sequence. we
consider its main types:

  • collagen forming long fibrils: it includes
    Type I, III, V and XI type collagen. Most of the collagen in
    body make up type i and iii which are
    very durable fibrils. Fibrils are filamentous proteinaceous.
    structures that are found in human cells and tissues. It’s almost
    90% of all collagen in the skin.
  • collagen forming a network: it includes type IV collagen.
    It forms a network of basal membranes. The basement membrane is
    cell-free layer of the skin, separating the epithelium from the endothelium. She is
    includes two layers: light and dark. If Type IV Collagen
    has a healthy structure, then the basement membrane is in
    good condition and tightly holding these two layers. That is, the skin at
    This looks supple, fresh and supple.
  • collagen forming “anchored” fibrils: it refers
    collagen type VII. This type of collagen represents
    anchors-clamps that capture and hold tight collagen
    fibrils. This harmonious process is a good thing.
    adjusted functioning of all types of collagen. Thereby
    collagen process is synthesized in a timely manner and as a result the skin
    Looks young and fresh.
  • collagen associated with fibrils. This type of collagen connects
    fibrils with each other and with other components of the extracellular
    matrix. It includes collagen IX, XII, XIV and
    XVI types.

Collagen in cosmetology

Despite the fact that collagen is used in cosmetology
long time ago, it still causes a lot of controversy and
pseudo-scientific debate. You can definitely say that
speculation around collagen is enough. What caused me to
such an innocent protein interest? And the fact that lately on
The collagen “vegetable and
vegetable-marine origin. ”


Attention! Collagen is an animal protein. Neither
collagen “plant derived from wheat proteins” or,
what else is absurd, collagen “vegetable-marine origin” in
nature does not happen and can not be.

There is a collagen of marine fish (whales, sharks), but not
“vegetable-sea”.

All this is nothing more than a marketing ploy. Background this
phenomena associated with the increasing incidence of diseases of large
bovine mad cow disease (prion disease).
And as a source of collagen in cosmetology is precisely the largest
cattle then consumers began to be wary of cosmetic
products based on it.

Some cosmetic firms began to offer consumers in
alternatively, an analogue of animal collagen –
“plant collagen”. Often such offers are accompanied by
clever commentary on the undeniable benefits of “collagen
vegetable-marine origin. “It is clear that entering into
consumer misconception, producers of “vegetable collagen”
lobby their products. In preparations based on
vegetable protein, perhaps, there are collagen-like
structures but this is not native collagen, and how
effective such a drug is difficult to determine.

In addition, the use of sick animal enterprises in
processing of leather raw materials is completely excluded due to
careful repeated veterinary and sanitary control. AT
in accordance with accepted international standards animal skins
subject to careful sanitization.

Collagen purification is a very long and laborious chemical process.
It takes a long time and has several steps.

How does collagen work in cosmetics?

Collagen in a cream has several important functions.
Firstly, it has a significant moisturizing effect.
Secondly, collagen demonstrates wide healing possibilities.
Thirdly, it is the leading structure-forming ingredient.
cosmetics, performing the role of a certain matrix, where the rest
components enhance their action.


Natural collagen in creams, emulsions and serums,
in contact with the skin under the action of body temperature, enters
chemical reaction, forming low molecular weight and water soluble
connections. These connections are using ecchancers (conductors),
present in the cosmetic, able to bypass the horny
layer and connect to exchange reactions stimulating
regenerative processes in the skin.

It should be clarified that when we talk about collagen in cosmetic
means, it is only about collagen hydrolyzate.
Hydrolyzate is a product obtained in the process of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis
– This splitting of a complex substance with the help of water. Such methods
processing of raw materials used for its better absorption by the body.
For example, collagen splits into readily available for absorption.
proteins, amino acids and peptides.

Raw materials used in cosmetology are obtained from natural
Sources: cattle hides. This kind of collagen
subjected to a multi-phase cleaning of unwanted impurities, but
its molecular weight is quite “heavy” for
penetration into the dermis. For this reason, collagen is subjected to
hydrolysis.

When choosing a cream, carefully examine the ingredients included in it.
composition. Remember that collagen and elastin must be in shape
hydrolyzate, in this form they penetrate through the stratum corneum and
demonstrate their regenerating properties. But it is no way
does not apply to hyaluronic acid. Collagen and elastin – proteins, their
can be hydrolyzed, and hyaluronic acid is a chemical
compound. Therefore, seeing on the package the phrase “hydrolyzate
hyaluronic acid “, you can safely throw the cream to the side.

Why do we lose collagen?

Over the years, the breakdown of collagen in the body prevails over its
synthesis. Moreover, this process begins in a fairly young
age Similarly, with hyaluronic acid and
elastin. This is a natural biological process.


Collagen breakdown process contributes to skin deterioration.
characteristics. The skin loses its firmness and elasticity, it becomes
flabby and dry, deep wrinkles appear on it. What
promotes collagen breakdown?

Reason number 1. Ultraviolet irradiation

Under the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation occurs not only
reduction of collagen synthesis, but also a change in its structure.
Prolonged ultraviolet radiation type A contributes to the formation
in the skin of free radicals. Free radicals are
molecule-walkers who walk by themselves enter into
chaotic “bonds” with organized molecules, thus contributing
confusion in the harmonious work of cells. New molecule too
becoming free radical and trying to find a new one
“sacrifice.” For example, ultraviolet penetrating deep into the skin may
transform collagen molecules into free radicals. Molecules
collagen become free radicals are associated with
other molecules form damaged, inelastic collagen.
The morphostructure of such collagen is broken, it becomes defective,
as a result, the skin ages earlier than expected. This
The process is similar to the domino principle. If it starts, then
stop it is not easy.

Reason number 2. Collagen destroys the enzyme
collagenase

Like any protein, collagen breaks through a certain
time. The body is regularly restored and replaced.
old damaged collagen to new collagen. But over the years
young collagen becomes smaller and older – more and more
what should be. There is a strict equilibrium in a young body.
between this proportion: new – old collagen. In the process
maturation of the skin this balance is disturbed, but as it becomes
understandable age is not the only reason
impairs collagen synthesis.

In our body there is an enzyme collagenase, which
cleaves peptide bonds in some areas of the spiral
collagen. This process of collagen synthesis and collagen can be compared.
as the seasons change, only as this process repeats,
young collagen is synthesized in the body less and less. BUT
all because in youth the process of exchanging collagen proceeds with
a certain intensity, and with age (especially in old age)
the process is markedly reduced as the elderly grow
the number of cross-links between collagen molecules. You can even
to say that collagen synthesis is not so much reduced as
changing its structure and quality. As a result, the skin becomes thinner,
become loose, loses elasticity, becomes wrinkled.
Modern regenerative technologies, such as: plasma-lifting,
placentherapy, SPRS-therapy – able to “wake up” fibroblasts and
encourage them to synthesize collagen.

Reason number 3. Smoking contributes to the destruction
collagen

This is a commonplace phrase that has long been heard by everyone.
irrefutable truth. Recent studies by Japanese scientists
have shown that smoking stimulates the production of molecules called
matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), which contributes to
degradation of collagen in the body, and external exposure
cigarette smoke on the skin, contributes to its double
After each cigarette you smoke, collagen synthesis in
body is reduced by about 40%.

Reasons number 4. Lack of vitamin C


It is known that vitamin C, along with vitamins A, E and selenium,
is a powerful antioxidant complex. Antioxidants –
substances that resist cell oxidation and prevent
free radical formation. As stated above,
ultraviolet radiation damages collagen molecules, turning
them in free radicals. A lack of vitamin C can accelerate and
aggravate this process. A lack of vitamin C in the body reduces
collagen synthesis and its structure. Instead of “normal” collagen
produced inelastic, defective collagen with reduced
mechanical strength. For example, when there is a shortage in the body
vitamin C develops a dangerous disease – scurvy. Wherein
damage to collagen fibers occurs.

How to restore collagen in the skin

To date, you can restore collagen in the skin by two
ways:

  • fill its deficiency with the help of cosmetics;
  • increase the stimulation of your own collagen.

Let’s be honest with the help of cosmetic creams, emulsions and
serum does not recover collagen in
skin. We have already written that collagen has a high molecular weight.
In order for it to penetrate the stratum corneum,
use collagen hydrolyzate. But even so, he
penetrates no further than the upper layer of the epidermis (the epidermis consists of
five layers). Maximum of what collagen can do in cream:
moisturize and nourishes the upper layer of the epidermis. And it should be noted doing
he is great.


Injections use split collagen, that is, it
the molecule is chemically treated to the loss of species identity
(crushed into very small parts). Collagen injections only
make up for its deficiency in the skin, give a good cosmetic
result, but the additional introduction of collagen into the skin is not
promotes the synthesis of its own collagen, and completely blocks
its production.

In medicine, there is such a term as replacement therapy.
This is when a patient is prescribed substances (enzymes or hormones), in
which he is deficient. Prolonged use of such
drugs leads to inhibition of its own synthesis
these substances, and as a result, everything is only complicated. I.e
the expression “sit on collagen injections” becomes objective
by reality. After about 3-6 months, the collagen is completely
splits in the body, and to maintain a cosmetic effect
requires the introduction of new portions.

In addition, the use of foreign collagen can cause
allergic reaction and its rejection, despite the high degree
cleaning up the product.

In order to start the synthesis of your own collagen,
stimulation of autologous (own) fibroblasts is necessary
(connective tissue cells that produce collagen, elastin and
hyaluronic acid).

In this case, refer to the procedures based on
regenerative technologies that run natural processes
rejuvenation. At the moment there are several such technologies:
plazmolifting, placentotherapy, the use of basic amino acids
collagen and SPRS-therapy (autologous cell-based therapy
fibroblasts). Plazmolifting and placenta – enough
famous technology.

Let us dwell on the last two methods.

The use of basic amino acids of collagen

As you know, proteins are composed of key amino acids, and collagen
is no exception. It consists of proline, lysine, glycine.
It also contains two rare amino acids: hydroxyproline and
oxylisin, which is almost never found in other proteins.
Accordingly, by increasing their supply to the dermis, it is possible to increase
production of own collagen.

SPRS-therapy (autologous cell based therapy
fibroblasts)

All autologous regenerative technologies
(own) substances are able to “wake up” cells “from hibernation” and
make them remember youth Based on this principle
plasma-lifting technique and ACR cellular rejuvenation technique (which
principle the same thing).

What is the essence of SPRS-therapy? Patient make a fence
material (in this case a piece of leather), then by standard
technologies emit autologous fibroblasts from it. But in the process
cultivation carry out screenings and stimulation only active and
young cells. They are then propagated to the required number and with
using injection injected into those areas of the skin that need to
correction. Young, active, and most importantly, their own fibroblasts with
easily start the metabolic processes in the cells and contribute to
skin regeneration. Currently, this technique has received
international recognition and is successfully applied both in Russia and in
foreign countries.

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