Dry skin of the body: causes, symptoms and solutions

The skin is one of the most important organs. She forms our
appearance, gives a sense of touch, controls the temperature
and protects against infections. However, hardened, compacted,
scaly, itchy, or painfully dry skin loses its ability
function properly – receptors become less
sensitive, risks of premature aging and damage
sun rays grow, the threat of infection increases. Usually
effective solutions are very affordable and they are based on daily
care that is suitable for dry skin.


  • Signs of increased skin dryness
  • Dry skin areas of the body
  • Sensitive skin
  • Dry skin for diseases
  • The main causes of dry skin
  • Factors causing dry skin
  • Care for dry skin
  • Avoiding factors that contribute to dryness

Signs of increased skin dryness

Dry skin is a major cause of skin diseases,
more than 40% of visits to dermatologists associated with dry
skin Dryness can occur anywhere on the body, but more often
all this happens on the arms, legs, knees and elbows, as well as the face,
because these sites are the most vulnerable. Dry skin on the face can
be a factor in premature aging.

Dry skin of the body

Dry skin is not able to regulate its

Internal and external factors may impair ability.
skin to hydrate and cause excessively dry skin

When skin becomes overdried, it can become very
stiff, flaky, with detachment, cause severe itching and pain,
even very rough and cracked. However, it is not always the case.
Obviously, it is dryness that causes these skin problems,
which depends on the degree of dryness and the affected area of ​​the body.

  • Moderately dry skin. At first, dryness can
    notice as a light seal or slight
  • Dry skin If skin continues to lose moisture,
    she gets coarse and can get cracked or gritty
    kind of possible itching.
  • Excessively dry skin. If such a dryness.
    left without treatment or care, or they are ineffective, the skin may
    become extremely dense, coarsened and cracked. On
    this stage itching can also become strong and painful.

Dry skin areas of the body

Dryness often appears on the skin of the legs and thighs. Dry skin on
feet especially common, and often leads to cracked
heels, which, in the event of a serious defeat, are associated with
pain and inflammation.

However, the dryness associated with washing with the use of strong
detergent, can affect the whole body equally.
Washing your hands too often can also cause dryness.
skin on them.

If you wash your hands very often, they may develop dry

Sensitive skin

Dry skin on the body is often very sensitive, however
sensitivity is not always caused by dryness. Some people’s skin
very sensitive by nature, even if it is well hydrated. AT
In any case, it is important to avoid skin care products that
contain irritating ingredients such as flavoring and
dyes. Always check that the product has passed dermatological.
tests on sensitive skin.

Dry skin of the body

Dry skin for diseases

For diseases such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis, skin
may look reddened, peel off and itch.

Dry skin may also be associated with some

  • Xerosis is a medical term for dry skin.
    It comes from Greek: “xero” means “dry”, and “osis” –
  • Atopic dermatitis and psoriasis are also associated with dryness, although
    The basis of these diseases are inflammatory processes. how
    usually, the skin affected by them looks reddened, exfoliates
    and it itches very much.
  • Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and
    kidney disease can also increase the risk of dry

The main causes of dry skin

There are many causes and factors that cause dryness.
body skin: from environmental exposure and improper care
skin to diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
The skin acts as a barrier to the body, but this means that
it is subjected to both external and internal influences.

External factors

  • External factors cause dysfunction of the skin as
    natural barrier, which leads to an increase in moisture loss through
  • Violation of the skin surface barrier due to flushing
    natural lipid layer makes it impossible to retain moisture, and
    the rate of its loss is growing.
  • Finally, when dryness spreads to the lower layers of the skin,
    disrupted water transport through the buried tissues, because
    the functioning of important humidification channels is disturbed.

Deficiency of natural moisture factors (PFZ) that bind
moisture leads to dehydration of the upper layers of the skin.

External factors contributing to dryness

The main external causes of the process described above are factors.
external environment and skin care:

  • Excessive UV intake can lead to
    skin aging and, as a result, dryness.
  • It is recommended to limit the bathing time and reduce
    water temperature, as prolonged baths can lead to
    evaporation of moisture.
  • Because some drugs can lead to
    dry skin, it is recommended to consult a doctor.

External environment

  • Severe weather conditions – heat, cold and dry air –
    destroy the protective function of the skin.
  • Seasonal changes – dry skin symptoms often worsen in winter.
    or in the summer.
  • Ultraviolet (UV) sunlight can accelerate aging
    skin, and with aging, it becomes more prone to dryness.

Skin care

  • Frequent washing or prolonged hot baths or showers remove the layer
    lipids forming a protective barrier of the skin.
  • Inappropriate skin care – it is important to follow the instructions and
    use products that are suitable for dry skin. Special
    It is important not to use strong soaps that erase natural
    skin lipids.

Medication Dry skin occurs as
a side effect of many drugs. Among
common drugs that have this side effect
diuretics for controlling blood pressure, action
which is reduced to an increase in the amount of water that is derived from
together with urine, as well as some antibiotics and
oral acne drugs. Always consult with
a doctor or pharmacist if you

Internal factors

Genetic effects On the balance of moisture in the skin
also affects heredity. Some people have oily skin,
others are dry, and these types of skin are inherited, although humans do not
will definitely have the same skin type that had it
parents. Skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis,
psoriasis, diabetes mellitus and ichthyosis often have a genetic

Hormonal effects Changes in concentration
certain hormones, especially estrogen and testosterone, can
affect skin moisture and lipid levels. This is especially noticeable.
after menopause when the skin becomes dry due to a decrease in the level
estrogen. Dry skin may also develop during pregnancy.
due to hormonal changes, as well as due to additional
biological fluid requirements.

Nutrition Like any other organ, skin requires
a number of important nutrients for normal functioning.
Among them are unsaturated fatty acids and vitamins. Lack of
any of them can contribute to the development of dry skin.

Age With age, the amount of sebaceous and
sweat glands in the skin decreases, leading to a decrease in
ability to synthesize sweat and lipids. Water content in the skin and its
the ability to retain moisture is also reduced. These factors
lead to dryness, which in turn causes aging of the skin
and the formation of fine lines and wrinkles. Learn more about dryness,
associated with age.

Factors causing dry skin

In addition to the main causes of dry skin, there is also
several factors that also affect the degree of dryness of the skin.
Understanding this will help avoid them and thereby reduce them.

  • The best time to moisturize is when the skin is clean and light.
    wet, for example, after a bath or shower.
  • Dry skin needs special sunscreen without
    any annoying perfumes and dyes.
  • Constant use of protective gloves and hand cream
    can help representatives of some professions such as doctor or
    the hairdresser.

Lack of effective treatment if dry skin
do not heal quickly, the degree of dryness can grow, and the system
moisturizing in the deep layers of the skin can be broken. Such
situations need to use a moisturizer,
designed to solve this problem.

Influence of sunlight Protecting dry skin from
exposure to sunlight, it is important that sunscreen also
restored the lack of moisturizing factors, in addition to
appropriate sun protection factor (SZF). It is also important that
sunscreen, like any other care products that
used on dry skin, did not contain irritating perfumes and
dyes because dry skin, especially on the face, is more prone to
irritation than normal.

Occupational hazards Some professions
require work in conditions that may increase the risk of dryness
skin. Usually these are activities that involve the influence of factors.
dry skin development such as working in hot or cold
conditions (farmer / fisherman), or work related to using
detergents (doctor / nurse / hairdresser), or working with
chemicals (mechanic / cleaner).

Dehydration The skin receives moisture from the body, and
therefore, it depends on the water balance in the body. With
dehydration it reduces the flow of moisture to the skin, which slows down
the natural movement of water through the skin that can contribute
its dryness. Older people are prone to dehydration because
age thirst dulled.

Smoking Cigarettes contain many toxins,
including nicotine, which can reduce blood flow rates. it
leads to a decrease in the metabolic rate in the skin. And that means
that it can start the process of premature aging and
drying out

Care for dry skin

Dry skin is caused by a violation of the barrier function of the skin, which
leads to loss of moisture and a decrease in water retention capacity
due to the lack of moisturizing factors. Thus, dry skin
requires daily care that does not cause further
deterioration of the skin barrier and restores the lack of
natural moisturizing factors.

Dry and excessively dry skin, as well as dry skin associated with
diabetes or psoriasis, requires appropriate means in
depending on the degree of dryness, but atopic dermatitis requires
special products for daily skin care for babies and
little children. When choosing a skin care product for children
always check age readings.

Recommendations for the care of dry skin

Cleansing dry skin of the body. Most often skin
it becomes dry due to damage to the skin’s surface barrier,
therefore it is important that the detergent is mild enough
so as not to flush the skin’s natural protective barrier. Additional
natural moisturizing factors such as urea will also help
restore moisture balance in the skin.

Moisturizing dry skin of the body. First
dry skin moisturizer requirement is a recovery
moisture balance in the upper layers of the skin. Substances that are called
“natural moisturizing factors” (PZF), such as urea and
lactic acid retain moisture in the stratum corneum or the upper layer of the skin.
The minimum recommended concentration of urea, even for moderate
dry skin is 5%. For excessively dry skin, as a rule,
higher concentration of urea and other moisturizers needed

Instead of wiping wet skin with a towel, blot
dry it, and then immediately apply a cream or

It is important to follow the instructions and use the products.
which are suitable for dry skin.

Dryness, hardening and hardening of the skin can be caused.
impairments in the three main mechanisms of humidity control:
damage to the surface barrier due to lipid deficiency
skin dehydration of the stratum corneum through the absence of natural
moisturizing factors and poor moisture distribution in the lower layers

Protection of dry skin from solar radiation
Going outside, you should reduce exposure, putting on clothes,
which covers all parts of the body and taking advantage of sunscreen.
In addition, it is important that sunscreens also contain
moisturizing factors. Sunscreens for dry skin do not
must contain irritating perfumes and dyes because dry
skin is sensitive to irritations.

Moisturizing should often be applied to the affected area.
cream that is suitable for dry skin.

Avoiding factors that contribute to dryness

In addition to high-quality daily cleansing and moisturizing, it is important
avoid factors that contribute to the development of dry skin. it
will help alleviate dry skin problems and reduce the need for

  • Avoid dry air by spending less time outdoors when
    hot and dry or cold weather and using humidifiers,
    if the room is turned on heating.
  • Reduce time spent in hot water by taking fast
    warm showers instead of long hot baths.
  • Use gloves while washing dishes – this will help
    avoid exposure to hot water and aggressive detergents
  • Wear clothes made from natural materials such as cotton and
    silk that does not irritate the skin. Wool is also a natural material.
    however, it may irritate dry skin, so it should
    to avoid.
  • Try to use laundry detergent without
    dyes or flavors to avoid irritation.
  • Make sure you drink enough water – especially
    This applies to older people.


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