Atopic dermatitis is a very common disease.
which affects the face and body, while the skin is constantly dry and
irritated. Patients report two phases of the disease. In inactive
phase (which they also call “break”), the skin of the face is dry and
irritated, but symptoms can be controlled; and during active
Phases (also called a “flash”) cause inflammation of the skin.
and she starts to itch.
During an exacerbation it is necessary to use more active
skin care with the use of cosmetics and / or
drug treatment if needed.
- Determination of symptoms of atopic dermatitis
- How to recognize atopic dermatitis?
- Factors and causes of atopy
- What else can cause the disease?
- What to do during an exacerbation?
Determination of symptoms of atopic dermatitis
Atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) –
it is a chronic skin disease that affects newborns,
children and adults – on the body as well as on the face. It is characterized
dry, irritated skin that itches and itches, becomes
thickened and may crack and sometimes bleed. Single
causes of the disease have not been identified, but patients have
lack of moisture and metabolic fatty acids, which leads to
damage to the protective function of the skin.
About 10% of the world’s population (10–20% of children and 2–5% of adults) suffer
on atopic dermatitis, and the number of complaints is growing. Really,
over the past 30 years, the number of patients has increased by 200-300%.
Atopic dermatitis is most common among infants and
children 90% of patients felt the first symptoms before the age
five years, and 80% – in two. Studies show that among
sick a little more women than men, besides it
predominantly a disease of the Western world.
Atopic skin can be in two phases: inactive (or
“normal”) and active (“flare aggravation”).
In the inactive phase, the skin of the face can be dry and very dry,
slightly peel off, have a color from pink to red, and the main
areas of manifestation – cheeks, scalp, forehead, skin
around the eyes and behind the ears. The formation of small
More problematic, both physically and psychologically, phase
aggravations, when patients feel mild or severe itching, skin
becomes red or dark red in color, is covered
uneven wounds, hurts, flakes and even slightly
If you are not sure about your symptoms, ask for
consultation with a doctor or a dermatologist.
How to recognize atopic dermatitis?
Atopic dermatitis – also known as atopic eczema –
it is a chronic skin disease that affects the skin on the face and
body of newborns, children and adults.
1. Violation of the barrier function promotes entry
microorganisms in the skin 2. Activation of immune cells, inflammation 3.
The affected areas vary from person to person. Typical
symptoms: dry, irritated skin that is flaky.
The number of complaints of atopic dermatitis is increasing, especially in
Western world, there is a double and sometimes triple increase
cases compared with the 1980s. For the occurrence
atopic dermatitis is no compelling reason, but there are
evidence of its association with asthma and hay fever.
The disease affects mainly children – sick all over the world
10–20% of children, while among adults only 2–5% are affected.
In adults, a rash usually occurs on the neck and in the zone
neckline, on the inner surface of the elbows and knees, on the arms and
feet, as well as on the face and scalp. For children and
newborns symptoms and lesions may be somewhat
People with atopic dermatitis often experience additional
inconvenience – such as lack of sleep, stress, prejudice and
lack of confidence. As in the case of the usual daily
skin care, certain lifestyle changes may
relieve symptoms, such as wearing cotton clothes, keep
lower body temperature for care sweating and avoid
foods that can trigger
Factors and causes of atopy
No single cause of atopic dermatitis has been identified,
however, there are a number of factors that contribute to it.
- Proved the existence of a connection between atopic dermatitis, hay
fever and asthma, studies show that if one or both
parents suffer from any or all of these diseases, then their
atopic dermatitis is likely to develop in the child.
Indeed, if both parents have atopic skin,
the likelihood that a child will have it too is
60-80%. Children inherit from their parents a lack of a file that causes
they lack natural moisture.
- Geographical location can play an important role in the development
diseases. Its prevalence is much greater in the western
The world and cases are much more frequent in cities than in rural areas.
A cold climate is also likely to increase the risk. For example, Jamaican
children who grow up in London (where pollution is high, and
temperature is relatively low), can get atopic
dermatitis is twice as likely as those who live on
- There is evidence that the age of a woman in which she
gives birth, affects the risk of having a child atopic skin – the older
mother, the higher the probability.
These pathogenetic factors lead to dry skin and impaired
its protective function.
When patients itch, they damage the skin barrier, leaving
bottom layers available for bacteria and environmental influences,
such as irritants, allergens and pollution.
There are four pathogenetic factors of atopic
1. Congenital insufficiency of filagrin; lack of natural
moisturizing factors (PVP), such as amino acids. 2. Breach
epidermal lipid metabolism (ceramides, cholesterol and free
fatty acids) and impaired lipid barrier formation.
This leads to dry skin with impaired barrier function. AT
In this case, the skin becomes open to infections:
3. Bacterial growth (Staphylococcus aureus) and secretion
super antigens. 4. Environmental factors such as irritants,
Dry and irritated skin leads to inflammation and itching.
Persistent itching can lead to constant scratching. It
damages the skin barrier, which contributes to the development of a moist environment
for breeding bacteria. And this, in turn, causes
irritation and subsequent itching and inflammation. So atopic skin cycle
What else can cause the disease?
There are many other materials and chemicals that
may contribute to the development or aggravate existing symptoms,
- clothing and materials – in particular, wool and nylon
- some foods – dairy products, nuts, shellfish
- alcoholic beverages
- allergic to house mites, dust or pollen
- cigarette smoke
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis can also be affected.
emotional factors, in particular:
Drinking alcohol can trigger symptoms.
What to do during an exacerbation?
Although it is impossible to “cure” atopic dermatitis, the symptoms
inactive and active phases can be facilitated by
cosmetic skin care and the use of pharmaceutical
During the inactive phase, you need daily, regularly and
consistently use softeners (or humidifiers). AT
these creams, lotions and olives have a high concentration of fat, which
helps keep skin supple, hydrated and protected from
irritants. As the skin is moisturized, it itches less, and
the skin barrier is less likely to be damaged by scratching.
During exacerbations, more active care is needed, which
will help reduce any inflammation and itching. in pharmaceutical
drugs usually use corticosteroids, as they
are very effective and fast, and relieve itching in
difficult cases of exacerbations.
However, hydrocortisone can not be used for a long time, especially for
babies and children because its long use can
make skin thinner. In addition, hydrocortisone can be applied on
significant areas of the skin, and its effectiveness decreases with
Using hydrocortisone is possible to alleviate symptoms.
atopic dermatitis. Long term use is not
recommended because hydrocortisone can cause thinning
Daily personal hygiene is very important to alleviate symptoms.
atopic dermatitis on the face. For relief of symptoms, you can
also make some lifestyle changes.
- Maintain low temperatures, especially at night. Sweating
causes irritation and itching.
- Keep creams and ointments in the refrigerator because they are chilled.
softeners provide additional relief from itching.
- Relax in places with a cool or temperate climate – to
it was neither too hot nor too cold.
- Practice meditation and yoga to relieve stress.
- Splash, not itch. Both of these actions soothe the skin,
but patting does not destroy the skin barrier.
- Wear cotton gloves at night to
prevent scratching the face in your sleep.
- Take a shower, not a bath, without raising the temperature of the water above
32 ° C and do not wash very often.
- Soak the skin almost dry, then immediately apply the cream or
- Wash new clothes before putting them on to remove
irritating dyes, factory labels and tags.
Shower is better than baths, but it should not be long, but
water temperature – not more than 32 ° С.