Genital warts: how to avoid infection?

Genital warts are formations on the genitals in
as a single node or multiple nodes that are called
human papillomavirus infection. The term “condyloma” is derived from
Greek condyloma acuminata, which means “knob” or
“cone”. In former times, it was believed that the disease is transmitted
only sexually, but lately thanks
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered to be the causative agent
human papillomavirus infection is transmitted from the mother to the infant and
even through blood. Papillomavirus
the infection can be transmitted through the household, through clothing and objects.
But still the main mode of transmission remains
sexual way. Infection with papilloma viruses does not always lead to
disease. The decisive factor in this issue is the state
immune system. The disease progresses only in case
immune system changes.


  • Causes of genital warts
  • Risk factors: who can get sick?
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Diagnosis of genital warts
  • Treatment of the disease
  • Disease prevention

Causes of genital warts

The cause of this pathology is infection
human papillomavirus (HPV). The virus affects only the skin.
and mucous membranes, but the internal organs do not penetrate into the blood
does not affect. The infection is transmitted sexually. Of all
sexually transmitted diseases, genital warts
considered the most common disease in the world. On this
more than 160 types of human papillomavirus infection are known.
The existence of such a number of virus types suggests that
every kind of HPV has a high ability to survive and
adaptations in different parts of the skin and mucous membranes. HPV Types
divided into subtypes and numbering. For example, HPV type 2 and 4 cause
warts on the hands, as these viruses prefer localization
on the skin of hands and palms. HPV type 1 affects the skin of the feet and is localized
on the soles.


Of all existing human papillomavirus, more than 40
affect the genitals and are classified into three groups:

  1. Low-risk HPV (this group includes HPV types 6 and 11). They
    provoke genital warts, but are not a threat
    malignant disease.
  2. HPV is an average risk (HPV type 29; 31; 33; 45; 51; 52; 56; 58 and
    59), like the high-risk virus, is responsible for the development of dysplasia
    cervix and cervical cancer, but warts are absent.
  3. High-risk HPV (in the HPV type 16 and 18 group) contribute to
    the development of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer, however in this
    case does not cause warts. In the development of cervical cancer guilty
    mainly HPV type 16.

Most often, a person is infected not with one type of HPV, but immediately
several of the different HPV groups.

Risk factors: who can get sick?

It is possible to identify the main risk groups, which include people
potentially prone to infection:

  • young age of patients (from 17 to 30 years);
  • a large number of sexual partners;
  • frequent sex;
  • early onset of sexual activity;
  • high sexual activity.

An infected HPV patient must know what is the source
infections for their sexual partners. In this case it is necessary
use a condom (barrier method of contraception). Should
Mention that in both women and men, HPV is a major
factor in the development of malignant diseases of the genital

Symptoms of the disease

Formations appear, as a rule, on the skin of the genitals.
Multiple rashes resemble cauliflower inflorescence, have
narrow base and sharp top, for which they were called peaked
condyloma. Also, the rash is localized in the interdigital and inguinal
folds. The disease is painful, complications are often
infectious hraktera. The patient is experiencing pain,
unbearable itching and heavy discharge with a strong odor.
The incubation period is from 3 to 6 months. Disease
occurs in both young men and young women. Rash
have flesh color, smooth surface, size of warts with
pinhead and in the early stages of disease development, they
little noticeable. Further warts grow, acquire
warty form and form whole colonies.
Genital warts are always multiple and
are located on the skin in a group. In women, the location of the warts on
cervix can be a worrying factor because the virus
contributes to the development of cervical cancer. Genital warts
very difficult to treat because of the resistance of the virus to
therapies and often recur even with timely and adequate
treatment. It is also known that a virus can be inactive
condition for a long time on apparently healthy skin.

Diagnosis of genital warts

The diagnosis is not difficult for a qualified
specialist. But in some cases differential
diagnostics with molluscum contagiosum, lichen planus,
brilliant lichen, secondary syphilis, angiokeratomas,
folliculitis, HIV infection and hair cyst.

Sometimes, for accurate diagnosis, a test is performed with acetic acid.
acid. The essence of the method consists in the following actions: a napkin
moistened in acetic solution and placed in areas
estimated localization of condylomas for 10 minutes, then
genital warts become white. Not worth it
forget that genital warts often result from
immunodeficiency states. Therefore, when diagnosing
diseases need to be screened for aids, syphilis and
other diseases.

If genital warts develop in women,
conduct a histological study on malignant
diseases of the genital organs or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.


Therefore, all women diagnosed with genital warts
must be regularly examined for early
cervical cancer detection. You should know that the removal
genital warts does not reduce the risk of developing

Treatment of the disease

Unfortunately, it is impossible to completely remove HPV from the body. Everything
medical activities are reduced to the removal of peaked
condyloma and to the relief of the patient. Most often resorted to
surgical treatment, but after medication
The method did not give a significant improvement.

There are several methods of surgical treatment of this
pathology, but it should be noted that all of them are not without

  1. Laser therapy. Condylomas are removed by carbon dioxide.
    laser. After the procedure, visible scars may remain.
  2. Diathermocoagulation. This type of treatment is possible only in case
    solitary warts on the skin, as it is very painful
    method and leaves persistent scars.
  3. Cryodestruction It can be said that this method is the most
    popular. The affected area is treated with liquid nitrogen. Procedure
    has some periodicity, it is repeated again and again until
    complete removal of all warts. This method is good because
    It has a low cost and does not lead to scarring of the skin.
    Cons of the method – hyperpigmentation and depigmentation of the treated
    skin areas, as well as severe pain that is experienced

What method is suitable for each person personally
dermatologist, after examining the history of the disease.

Be sure to conduct a comprehensive treatment, which also
includes immunocorrective therapy.  Relevant
drugs are taken both orally and injected directly into
genital warts.

Drug treatment is determined by a specialist. Treatment
genital warts – a long and scrupulous process. Can’t be either
in any case, to self-medicate, as the disease
has similar symptoms with other diseases, and, starting
inappropriate treatment can cause great harm to the body and
aggravate the course of the disease. Better to entrust your health and life
to professionals.

Disease prevention

In order to avoid infection with HPV is enough
adhere to the rules of hygiene sexuality. Primary prevention
genital warts involves the use of a barrier
method of protection (condom). This reduces the risk of infection as the most
man and his partners, but unfortunately, not all
know that cheap low-quality condoms are not capable
protect people from infections transmitted by
sexually. There are American-made condoms,
which are tested for quality and impermeability of viruses
through the pores of the condom. On such products there is an inscription
“AIDS-free”. The cost of such products above the rest, but not worth it
save when it comes to your own health.

In addition, a condom does not always give a 100% guarantee of protection against
infection. For this reason, it is prudent to have one sexual
a partner who inspires confidence and abandon random
sexual intercourse. You should be attentive to your health and
at the slightest suspicion of genital warts immediately
consult a gynecologist, urologist or dermatovenerologist.

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