Modern man knows and is able very much. But always
experiences bewilderment and fear when he discovers
a microscopic insect parasitizing hair
groin or armpits.
We are talking about lice – an ancient bloodsucker, companion
person Pediculosis always appears suddenly, and
coping with it is difficult because the louse is very prolific and fast
And to defeat the parasite, you need to know all the features of its
- 1 How lice multiply on a person’s head. Life cycle the parasite.
- 2 How quickly lice on the head multiply after infection in a child and in adult
- 3 Frequently asked questions about lice
- 4 Where the infection can occur
- 5 Symptoms of Pediculosis
- 6 Methods of getting rid of the parasite
- 7 Pediculosis prevention
How lice multiply on a person’s head. Life cycle
The content of the article:
- How lice multiply on a person’s head. Life cycle
- How quickly lice on the head multiply after infection in a child
and in adult
- Frequently asked questions about lice
- Where the infection can occur
- Symptoms of Pediculosis
- Methods of getting rid of the parasite
- Pediculosis prevention
Lice are dioecious insects. Therefore, in order to
the posterity appeared, the male and female individuals are needed.
Interestingly, the parasite can multiply, not yet
reaching adulthood, just going to the stage of the nymph.
Rapid reproduction occurs due to the availability of favorable
- Temperature boundaries of a comfortable lice habitat
range from 22 to 45 degrees. Even if a person walks
without a hat, the parasite is not threatened with death, because
the optimum temperature for it is 31 degrees;
- The presence of a food source in the form of blood allows the female
constantly laying eggs, of which in a short time
adult individuals develop;
- Insects that can move quickly, usually
localized in a small space that allows
females and males quickly find each other for mating.
INTERESTING: There are several types of lice:
head, clothes and pubic. The process of their reproduction can be considered
identical (there are the smallest differences).
The life cycle of the parasite.
In science, lice are referred to insects whose life cycle is
incomplete. It lacks the developmental stage of a typical larva.
(small worm), differing in appearance and way
food from an adult individual.
The female is able to postpone all her life
eggs mating with a male once. This is because
that the seminal fluid of the male fertilizes all the eggs. Female
the individual, hitting the human hair, immediately begins to feed and
REFERENCE: Hair lice sets aside daily for 4
eggs (140 – for the life cycle), wardrobe – 10 each (300 – per life cycle),
pubic – 1-2 (up to 60 nits).
The life cycle begins immediately after losing
eggs, and includes several stages.
Egg Development Stage
In the process of laying eggs from the genitals, lice first
specific mucus comes out and then an egg that is attached
gradually on the hair by a stiff viscous secret at a distance
0.5-1 cm from the surface of the head and with the course of development rises
him The egg has very strong walls and is called a nit.
It can not be shaken due to strong fixation will help
special combs or “tightening” nits from the hair by hand.
INTERESTING: Nits like a piece of dead skin
white or light gray. But when viewed under
the microscope becomes clear that, rather, it resembles
handbag-bag, which is held tightly on the hair.
In the shell of the insect develops 8 days, after which it
breaks the wall, but can not get out. Nature has saved this
case of an interesting way of survival: the parasite begins to actively
inhale the air and release the carbon dioxide that accumulates
at the bottom of a kind of capsule. This leads to the expulsion of the individual from the egg.
As soon as it gets on the skin, it begins to actively feed and
sheds for the first time.
A nymph of the first age appears (size 1.5 mm). On that
The process takes about 2 days.
REFERENCE: Nymph zoologists call the young individual
insect, very reminiscent of an adult insect, but different
smaller size, durability of chitinous cover and transparent gray
color. Nymphs molt three times, each time growing out of chitin
cover and throwing it off when the soft body grows up.
The stage of development of the nymph of the first age
The term development of the nymph – 5 days. Nymph grows
eats, is able to multiply. Its size is 1.5-1.75
Stage of development of the nymph of the second age
Lasts 8 days and ends with the appearance
adult lice (size 2-3.6 mm), capable of living from 30 to 42 days.
The lice growth cycle thus involves the development of nits and
triple shedding nymphs. It is transient and can be slowed down.
only when the temperature drops sharply. Usually
full life cycle takes place on the body of a single carrier for 16
How quickly lice on the head multiply after infection in a child
and in adult
There is a medical statistics that identifies risk groups.
People who are most often infected with pediculosis (lice):
- Group 1: adolescents and young people aged
from 14 to 25 years (every sixth is infected);
- Group 2: children under the age of 14;
- Group 3: people aged 35 and over (less
most exposed to the disease).
The life cycle of the parasite occurs in both children and
adults equally – for 16 days. But, unlike
adults, children quickly respond to the appearance of lice: start bad
sleep, combing the head, an infection can be wounded,
After how many days the louse lays the first eggs
Eggs can lay as mature insects that have fallen off.
another carrier, as well as young individuals that have passed the life cycle on an infected
- As soon as the louse appears on the human body, it
begins to feed and lay eggs. By location
nits on the hair can determine the duration of infection and the beginning of laying
- The nymph of the first age is able to mate and
put off the nits. This means that after 8-10 days from the day
her birth will be a new portion of developing parasites;
- After 16 days, a mature individual develops from nits,
capable of laying eggs itself.
If the adult louse on the human body is comfortable
conditions, the process of formation of new individuals goes on without stopping.
And in 30 days the number of parasites will increase in geometric
Frequently asked questions about lice
Expert opinion Alexander ValerievnaVrach-Trichologist
How is the mating process?
The male’s genital opening is located on top behind.
the anus, and in the female, except for the ovaries and oviducts,
there is a seminal receptacle and a vagina. The mating process lasts from
20 to 70 minutes and can be performed at any time. During
mating male firmly holds the female with a claw-like outgrowth.
Male seminal fluid fertilizes eggs, which can
be viable for 7–12 days in hair louse, in dressing
lice – 15-20 days. The formation of parasite eggs occurs in the egg.
tubules, where they are covered with a dense shell.
What first appears: louse or nit?
It is believed that lice may appear from the nits that came out
from under the skin. But this is an erroneous point of view, because nits are
eggs lice. Being a maternal individual, the parasite female passes the stage
mating, fertilization and the birth of a new individual.
Yes, it may be that a person does not have lice, but does have nits. But this
explained only by the following:
- or infection with lice was observed, and the treatment did not pass.
effectively: lice were exterminated, but there are no nits, since they
chitin layer missed the insecticide;
- either the conditions for the development of the life cycle lice were
unfavorable, the nit was in a dormant state, and
the adult individual died or moved to another carrier.
What are the differences between a male and a female?
In parasites isolated individuals, both female and male.
And the number of females exceeds the number of males, according to
scientists to maintain population numbers.
Females and males have both external and internal differences:
|External features||A larger size (up to 4 mm), forked at the end of the abdomen,
spurs on hind legs
|Size smaller than female (up to 3 mm), rounded
abdomen, claw-shaped processes on the front legs
|Internal features||Spherical nits are clearly visible in the transparent belly.||Visible copulatory organ|
It is best to examine the internal genital lice under
Where the infection can occur
Lice, a type parasitizing insect
arthropods. She can’t fly, jump or swim, but
moves very quickly (about 30 cm per minute). Therefore, one of
The most common ways to infect head lice is contact
with a sick head to head.
Pediatric head disease most often affects children and
adolescents from 4 to 14 years old (girls with long hair),
contacting for a long time with each other in kindergarten, school or
children’s recreation camp. Cause of Pediculosis Infection
can be using someone else’s comb, headgear, towels
INTERESTING: You can “pick up” a head louse in
questionable hotels (bed linen), swimming pools (hats for
bathing and other people’s towels) and barber shops where not met
Pediculosis is transmitted by sexual contact, during
whose louse has the ability to climb from one person to
another and lay eggs.
Ward lice, like the head, is transmitted from the patient
healthy person with close contact and use of strangers
Symptoms of Pediculosis
Depending on the type of louse, there are different types of head lice and
therefore, different symptoms of the disease.
Symptoms of head lice:
- Itching of scalp, less often ears and neck;
- On the ground bites appear yellow scabs and noticeably
inflamed hair follicles;
- When running pediculosis, lumps of uncut hair are formed,
glued pus from wounds;
- On examination of the scalp, white or
yellowish eggs laid by lice, when crushed, they click,
empty eggs are gray;
- Lymph nodes may be inflamed near the ears and neck.
Symptoms of lice:
- The affected areas are the shoulders, the armpits,
back, neck, abdomen, waist, groin, back and inner surface
- Lice bites look like mosquitoes, but with a dark dot on
the center; with an increase in the area of the lesion, the bites acquire blue
shade and may fester;
- When neglected bites become brown in color, skin
at the site of injury thickens, appear in place of ulcers
- The patient has a fever, fever appears,
weakness, nausea and headache.
Symptoms of pubic lice (phthyriasis):
- The affected areas are the genitals, anal
hole, armpit hair, eyelashes and
- A slight itch that does not cause anxiety. Itching often
accompanied by burning of the mucous membranes of the genital organs;
- With the defeat of the eyelashes and eyebrows, discomfort appears
on the mucous membrane of the eye and around it. Nits are usually located on
the length of the cilia closer to the eyelid.
Symptoms will help determine what kind of lice occurred.
infection. Then you can apply effective
means to combat parasites.
Methods of getting rid of the parasite
When symptoms of pediculosis appear, you need to find out the level
stitching. He might be
- Short: several nits and
- Awesome: nits are hanging on the hair in bunches,
noticeable movement of lice on the scalp, forehead, ears, eyebrows.
After that you should choose the most effective way to combat
There are several methods for the treatment of pediculosis:
- Radical – head bald, full
hair removal from the hairy part of the body. Lice will not be able to postpone
eggs on hair less than 3-4 mm tall. Way really
radical because in one day it is possible to get rid of
parasite with any degree of hairiness. But not everyone accepts him,
because they are not ready to part with their hair for a while.
- Mechanical – manual selection of nits from hair and
catching adults. Can be used with a small amount
parasites. In this case, the head is washed (lice for a short time
will become inactive), take a special comb, which
wet hair is divided into very thin strands. Each hair
in the strands can be seen, and with it found a nit. By
during the inspection of the head lice are caught. Best procedure
hold on a white cloth (if the parasite gets on it, it is easy
can be detected and destroyed) or in the bathroom (easier to wash off the lice
down the drain). During the day you should spend several times such
inspection, be sure to wash your hair in the evening. If possible,
then repeating mechanical catching lice is worth a few days.
Bed linen boiled, hairbrushes to be replaced.
- The use of folk remedies in the fight against
parasite is not always effective, but is due to be
low toxicity for the human body:
- Broths of herbs wormwood, mint, wild rosemary, root
hellebore, chopped garlic rubbed into the scalp. Lice not
make the smell of lavender oil and tea tree, they should be rubbed into
skin and hair.
- Kerosene has been used for decades. But he can
cause a burn or allergic reaction.
There is a safe recipe: a mixture is applied to dry hair
- 1 tbsp. kerosene,
- 2 tsp. vegetable (better than olive oil),
- 1 tsp shampoo
The head is covered with a plastic bag and a towel for 2
hours, after washing with warm water with shampoo, rinsed with light
acetic solution. Nits and lice are combed when the hair
The procedure can be repeated after 2 days, but the concentration
kerosene is made less.
Vinegar is used not to kill lice, but to
neutralize the secret that nits are attached to
hair. For the procedure induced aqueous acetic solution
(2/1), in which the hair is well moistened. Vinegar concentration not
more than 9%. After that, the head is tied with a plastic bag on
1 hour, wash with shampoo and dry. Next is a mechanical
removing nits and lice and combing them with a special comb.
Use of pharmaceuticals
In modern pharmacology, there is a wide range of tools
able to very quickly deal with pediculosis, affecting their
the parasite’s nervous system or by blocking air and them
fluid. The method of application of each tool is registered on
The main types of funds:
- Sprays (Pediculen, Paranit, Pair Plus,
Pedikulen Ultra (with a strong infection) are easy to use,
applied to dry hair, but ineffective for the destruction of nits;
- Shampoos (Pedilin, Anti-bit, Reed, Paranix,
Cifax, tarry) allow you to get rid of parasites in one step,
applied to damp hair for 30 minutes, after which the head is washed
normal shampoo, and nits and lice are combed.
- Emulsion Benzyl Benzoate 20% – for adults, 10%
– for children from 5 years. It has an unpleasant smell, but it is cheap.
- Ointments (Permethrin Cream, Lauri, Knicks, Medifox,
sulfuric, sulfuric-mercury, boric) rubbed into the skin, can cause
allergic reaction, contraindicated in pregnant and lactating
women and babies.
- Solutions (Nittifor)
The use of various methods and means in the fight against lice should
depend on the individual characteristics of the infected person.
Prevention of pediculosis lies in the implementation of the complex
rules that prevent the occurrence of the disease and eliminate
risks of infection. Observing the anti-pediculent rules, you can
protect yourself from re-infection. Exist
sanitary and hygienic rules and norms of reasonable, healthy
human communication with other people:
Sanitization after infection:
- After the treatment of the infected surface with insecticides, the dead
nits and lice combed comb. One week procedure
- Things, bedding, items of personal hygiene infected
man and his family members are subjected to careful processing.
- Every 1-3 days the head is examined not only the infected
man, but also those who live with him near.
- Shower and wash your hair every other day or every day;
- Bath with essential oils and hair masks (mainly:
citrus or coniferous oils);
- Frequent change of clothes and underwear;
- Laundry and ironing;
- Double bed linen and towels per week;
- Careful hair care: frequent combing, washing
hairbrushes 1 time in 2 days, change – once a month;
- Prohibiting other people from using personal items
use (washcloths, towels, hairbrushes, hair ties,
hairpins, headbands, headbands), outerwear and hats;
- Cleaning, washing or dry cleaning of outer clothing at least once
- Regular wet house cleaning, airing, handling
chemical means of upholstered furniture;
- In trains, motels, hotels use a personal bed.
- In swimming pools, baths, saunas use their hats.
Do you follow the rules of hygiene for prevention
Thoughtful and balanced communication with people:
- Cessation of close contact with people living in
unsanitary conditions, and with strangers;
- Exclusion of casual sex.
If the lice still bred, do not
to panic. In the courtyard of the 21st century! There is a mass in any pharmacy
drugs that can bring unwanted guests. But
so that they no longer appear, you need to follow the rules of personal
hygiene and from time to time carefully inspect their hair