Lyme disease: causes, treatment, prevention

Lyme disease or borreliosis is an infectious disease,
which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Borrelia
(Borreliaburgdorferi), from the Spirochetaceae family.  it
the only species of borrelia that lives in temperate latitudes and
is pathogenic for humans. To become infected with this pathology
possible in forests and parks in the spring and autumn season, when ticks
especially active. The disease was first detected in the United States in
place called Lyme, hence its name – a disease

In modern medicine, Lyme disease is interpreted as “the famous
imitator “. The fact is that the disease is characterized
multiformity of symptoms and sometimes a person applies for
help to a rheumatologist, neuropathologist, allergist, dermatologist,
never reaching the main specialist – infectiologist.


  • The reasons
  • Symptoms and stages of the disease
  • Diagnostics
  • Treatment
  • Prognosis and prevention

The reasons

As mentioned above, the pathology of mites of the genus Borrelia
(Borreliaburgdorferi), from the Spirochetaceae family.  Vectors
diseases are ticks. And the tick is contagious at any stage.
of its development: whether it is a larva or an adult. Person
gets infected after being bitten by a tick, when his body through the wound
insect saliva penetrates. Tick ​​bite causes itchy skin
and through scratching the man himself rubs insect elements into the skin.
Then for some time ticks multiply,
spread to other skin areas, and even to internal
organs (joints, heart, brain). In addition, ticks for years
may remain in the body in an inactive state or
cause a prolonged chronic course of the disease with
recurrent periods. There are cases when the infection
transmitted from mother to child through the placenta.

bolezni laima

Symptoms and stages of the disease

The incubation period of the disease is approximately two weeks,
but can last up to a year. Pathology has three stages of development,
but this does not mean that all patients must go through all three stages.
It happens that in some people the disease ends in the first stage, in
others only begin to manifest in the third stage.

The first stage is a local infection that develops in
during the first month after an insect bite. At this stage
the disease is characterized by general malaise, weakness,
articular and headaches, with very high body temperature and
chills. Symptoms of Lyme disease by all indications resemble
flu state The disease occurs in severe form, in patients
vomiting and nausea are noted, and fever sometimes continues to 12
days and more. By the symptoms of general malaise joins
skin lesions in the form of red round spots that are capable
move from one area of ​​skin to another. In some patients
in the first stage of the disease, the symptoms only appear as
characteristic ring-shaped lesions. In place of the bite occurs
round red spot with clear edges that grows throughout
all directions. Over time, the center of the edge fades, leaving only
border reddish – bluish tint. Spots can cause
discomfort: itching, burning, soreness.

The second stage develops in a few weeks and months, more often
all in the absence of adequate treatment. At this stage already
internal organs and systems are affected: cardiovascular,
nervous and musculoskeletal. Skin lesions are seen as
urticaria, round red spots, ring-shaped elements. Also
inflammation of the eyes, throat, bronchi, kidneys and
the liver. The following syndromes are characteristic of this stage:

  • neurological;
  • cardiological;
  • meningeal

Meningeal syndrome is the most common condition that
is a consequence of serous meningitis. Patient status
characterized by severe headaches, eye pain
apples, especially when looking up, severe vomiting,
sensitivity to light and sound. Rigidity observed
occipital muscles and other meningeal symptoms. Also
development of encephalitis or encephalomyelitis is recorded, neuritis
cranial nerves: auditory and ocular.

The third stage is a chronic recurrent condition.
diseases. This stage begins after the end of the previous two and
able to develop even a few years after infection.
Pathology acquires a long course with periods of exacerbations and
remission. At this stage, various organs and systems are affected.
Patients complain of general weakness, fatigue, headache and
joint pain Observed neurological symptoms: irritability,
sleep disturbance, depression, as well as chronic neurological
lesions in the form of the following pathologies:

  • encephalitis;
  • memory disorders;
  • polyneuropathy;
  • ataxia;
  • dementia.


The above stages of the disease are conditional, and
symptoms characteristic of each stage are optional
for every patient. Both the course of the disease and the symptoms of the disease
All cases are individual.

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Diagnosis at an early stage of the disease is carried out on the basis of
clinical and epidemiological symptoms. Unfortunately, most often
the disease is recognized at a later stage already when
lesions of internal organs appear. Confirms the diagnosis with
using a specific serological blood test, which
carried out in the laboratory of the infectious diseases hospital.


The first stage of the disease allows treatment on an outpatient basis.
Patients with the second stage are subject to compulsory
hospitalization in an infectious diseases hospital. With all stages
diseases apply antibiotic therapy. Drug selection
dosage and duration of use depends on the specific stage
the disease, the syndrome prevailing in it, its form and degree
gravity. In the absence of adequate treatment, the disease progresses,
going into a chronic form, and in some cases even leads to

Prognosis and prevention

With timely treatment for medical care, the prognosis
the disease is favorable. In case of delayed treatment affects
internal organs, the disease progresses and becomes chronic
form. Therefore, if you suspect the slightest bite of an insect should
immediately report to the infectious diseases physician.

Preventing Lyme disease is a protective measure against
ticks. When going for a walk in the park, the forest must be worn high
boots, boots, pants tucked into shoes, shirt in trousers,
carefully fasten the zipper on the jacket. From insect attacks to
open areas of the body can protect repellents. Exist
Special suits, fully protecting against ticks. They
soaked in a special preparation that repels insects.

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