Trichoepithelioma: causes, types and methods treatment

Trichoepithelioma – tumor follicle disease,
which has a benign course. Pathology has
hereditary character found among representatives of one
family and is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant manner.
The disease develops in women more often than in men. This
pathology develops in childhood or puberty and
characterized by the development of multiple tumors,
deep in the skin. Neoplasms usually do not exceed
5-10 mm and slightly rise above the skin.


  • Causes of disease
  • Symptoms and types of trichoepithelioma
  • Diagnosis of the disease
  • Treatment of trichoepithelioma
  • Prediction and prevention of the disease

Causes of disease

Despite the fact that the main reason for the development of this
disease is a hereditary factor by
autosomal dominant type, yet the mechanism of occurrence
trichoepithelioma is not completely identified. Some specialists
It is believed that the disease develops due to the presence in
the hair sac (where the trichoepithelioma is formed) is large
the concentration of Merkel cells (cells of the basal layer of the epidermis,
occurring on both hairless and hairy areas of the body.)
An imbalance in the workings of Merkel cells can provoke a severe
pathology – cancer from Merkel cells.


In the hair areas of the skin there are very few Merkel cells, and
in hairless in front of them very much. Merkel cells take
participation in the implementation of skin sensitivity, for example, in
skin located on human palms and fingers
Merkel several times their density on the rest
skin areas. So the place where tumors form,
is a follicle with a high concentration of Merkel cells. but
the formation of a single trichoepithelioma is not inherited, and its causes
the occurrence and development remain undetected. Often
trichoepithelioma accompanied by other tumor diseases such
like: cylinder and syringoma.

Symptoms and types of trichoepithelioma

The disease usually develops in childhood or youth
age and is a multiple tumor formation
on the skin. Favorite site of neoplasm localization: face and
body. Neoplasms are small-neoplastic tumors,
which usually do not exceed 5-10 mm. Early tumor diseases
formed on the nasolabial folds, but as the disease progresses
the number of neoplasms multiplies and they form everywhere: under
eyes, nose, head and ears. Less commonly, tumors are located on
neck, back, chest. Often trichoepithelioma develops in tandem with
cylindroma, since these diseases are related to a common histogenetic

There are several forms of trichoepithelioma:

  • Simple, which in turn is divided into: plural and
  • Desmoplastic.

Multiple trichoepithelioma develops in a very early
aged and is a small, dense round knots
forms. The surface of the neoplasm is smooth, light pink or
body color. On larger items persistent
dilation of small vessels that form on the skin in the form
asterisks or vascular network. Localized trichoepithelioma in
areas of the nasolabial folds, on the nose, on the eyelids, under the eyes, in
areas of the parotid shells, less often – on the back, stomach, between
shoulder blades. Often multiple tumors merge to form
one broad conglomerate. This form of the disease represents
danger in terms of trichoepithelioma transformation into basilioma (cancer

A single trichoepithelioma is a small tight
nodule more than 1 cm, slightly towering over the skin covered with a network
dilated vessels. The tumor tends to be very slow.
growth. By its appearance and consistency, the tumor resembles
dermofibroma or papiloma.

Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma is more common in women and
characterized by a single flesh-colored node that has
propensity for slow but steady growth. Characteristic feature
This form is the presence in the center of the tumor grooves, with
dense pronounced border edging.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosing trichoepithelioma is quite difficult, since
This disease is combined with tumors of a different etiology and
various skin pathologies. Therefore, a differential
trichoepithelioma diagnostics with other tumor diseases:
Dermofibroma, papilloma, syringoma, cylindroma, basilioma and
Prince-Bournevela disease. Single trichoepithelioma especially
often falsely diagnosed with syringoma and cylinder.

For this reason, only visual diagnostics is not
correct, it is necessary to conduct a histological study,
which will finally confirm the diagnosis. But even in the case
histological examination there is a risk of false diagnosis.
To distinguish trichoepithelioma from basal cell carcinoma is very difficult. In this case
more research is needed – specific
reactions that clearly differentiate cells
granulocyte series in natural states and at

Treatment of trichoepithelioma

Treatment of trichoepithelioma depends on its shape. For example,
multiple tumors do not eliminate surgery
intervention, they apply conservative treatment. Assigned
topical therapy in the form of ointments based on cytostatics, which
applied directly to the elements of the tumor. With a single
form of trichoepithelioma used surgical treatment. Exist
various ways to remove tumors:

  • The classic method is used in case of suspicion
    malignant disease. When removing the tumor also capture
    a piece of healthy tissue to avoid relapses. This method is not
    recommended for use in localizing the tumor in a conspicuous place,
    since after its removal, scars remain on the skin and
  • Laser destruction. The essence of the method is to evaporate the tumor.
    carbon dioxide laser.
  • Cryodestruction Destruction of neoplasm tissue by
    cauterization with liquid nitrogen.
  • Electrocoagulation. The tumor is evaporated with high frequency current.
    Instead of a traditional scalpel, an electric knife is used.

Treatment with alternative methods should be carried out only after
diagnosis of the disease, with the permission and under the supervision of a physician.
Self-medication can lead to unpredictable consequences if,
for example, a malignant disease is masked by
trichoepithelioma. In this case, the patient risks his life and loses
time allowing the disease to take on an incurable form.

Prediction and prevention of the disease

The prognosis of the disease is favorable in all cases. Prevention
trichoepithelioma development does not exist.

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