Types of lice – which are on the head and on human body classification

Often in children and adults appear hair parasites – lice.
Contrary to popular belief, this attack strikes not only
those who poorly follow the rules of personal hygiene. What types of lice
appear in humans, and how to deal with this unpleasant phenomenon you
Learn from our article. Types of lice

The main types of lice that can be a person – official

The content of the article:

  • The main types of lice that can be a person – official
  • Photo under the microscope
  • Animal lice
  • What size lice are
  • Types of lice depending on color
  • Types of lice – depending on the appearance
  • What are the nits (larvae) of all kinds
  • How you can get and the main symptoms
  • How to treat pediculosis and get rid of parasites

There are many types of lice. Only in mammals
There are more than 500 species of animals of these parasites. AT
Three can be found in the human house:

  • Head louse; Head Louse
  • Cootie; Cootie
  • Pubic louse. Pubic louse

Head louse

Pediculus humanus capitis – one of two species
human lice. This species lives in the hair of the head, as well as in
mustache and beard. The paws of the head louse are adapted to dwell on
hair with a circular cross section.

The body of the parasite has a dark gray color and small size.
The louse, settling in the human hair, feeds on it
by blood. After consuming blood, the color of the body changes to
red or purple. The length of the adult parasite is 2-4 mm.
Females usually have a larger body size. She lives about 1 month,
laying 5 eggs a day during this time. Eggs (nits) are fixed at
the base of the hair and ripen in 7-10 days. After
the grown louse leaves the egg, it remains hanging in the balance empty.
6-10 days after that, the young insect reaches the genital
maturity. Head Louse

Head louse is not as dangerous for humans as, for example,
wardrobe The fact is that she does not tolerate such
diseases like typhus. However, after being bitten by a parasite,
wound gets saliva, which causes itching and irritation (pediculosis). AT
In this case, the probability of any infection getting through
damaged areas of the skin.


Pediculus corporis (or Pediculus humanus corporis De G. var.
vestimenti) – this insect usually lives in folds and on a pile
clothes man. The louse breeds there and lays eggs.
(nits). Turning for a while from clothing to skin,
the insect feeds on human blood. The body length of the female reaches 4.7
mm, male – 3.7 mm.

The mouth apparatus of lice consists of piercing needles enclosed in
a soft tube (proboscis) that turns out of the mouth, the edges of which
fit snugly to punctured skin. The process of bloodsucking occurs
through muscle contractions of the pharyngeal pump and pharynx.
In the parasite’s saliva there is an enzyme that interferes with blood.
roll up. wardrobe

Through a short esophagus, blood enters the stomach, which
can greatly stretch. An adult can drink from
0.001 to 0.003 ml. blood. Lice is characterized by sexual dimorphism,
therefore, females often differ in large size and weight,
so they drink more blood. Before being fed with blood,
The louse has a light gray tint. After blood got into
the body of the parasite, the little body becomes dark red.

Females live 40-45 days, during this period they have time
set aside from 100 to 150 eggs. On the day, the female lays about
4 nits. New nit turns into a louse in 6-8 days. During
the first 8 days of life a young parasite experiences 3 molts and can
multiply. This kind of insect is dangerous to humans, so
as a carrier of typhus.

Pubic louse

Also, this parasite is called plower (Latin Phthirus pubis).
They live on the human body in areas where there is hair with
triangular section, namely in the pubic zone, on the genitals
and around the anus. Sometimes pubic lice can be found in the armpits
hollows, on the chest and even on the stomach. Ploshitsu never
detect on the scalp since this hair has
round cut shape, and the limbs of the pubic louse are not adapted
fasten on them.

The parasite feeds exclusively on human blood.
Without new blood, the insect dies within
days. Puncture of blood vessel wall, insect
dilates the esophagus, drawing blood in like a pump. Wherein
she injects into the wound an enzyme that prevents blood from clotting.
The louse is fed every 4-5 hours. Pubic louse

The body of the insect usually has a light brown color,
thanks to which the parasite is hardly noticeable on the pubic hair. Body length
1.5-2 mm., In the larvae from 0.7 to 1 mm. When placed strong and
large paws of a louse may seem very wide. Color pubic
lice slightly brown.

The egg laid by the female develops 5-7 days, about 13-17 days.
the larva develops, during this period three molts occur. After
This adult goes to reproduction. Disease,
caused by the appearance of these parasites, is called pubic pediculosis
or ftiriaz.

Photo under the microscope

If you look at the head louse under a microscope, you can
consider in detail the grayish translucent chitin from which
its shell consists. Oblong body has
ellipsoidal shape, and the edges are covered with rounded protuberances. Also
You can consider three pairs of legs, which fasten the louse to the hair.
louse under the microscope

The lice have a lighter chitin, a short torso without
characteristic rounded bulges along the edges. In this species
The parasite also has 3 pairs of legs.

Pubic louse is very different from previous ones.
species. Her body is made of translucent brown
chitin. The shape of the body resembles a diamond, as it has a significant
extension closer to the head. Three pairs of legs have an impressive
size, due to which the insect looks even wider.

Animal lice

In cats, dogs and other pets with hair,
lice may start. More often they are called lashing. These parasites
feed on hair and dead skin scales. Skin through and
they cannot drink blood.

Compared to human parasites, lashes have
smaller size. They have a rounded torso and triangular
head, in front of which there is a small recess for grasping
hairs. The jaws of the lashing are very strong, which allows them to
Easy to bite off pieces of skin. It is this process that causes
severe pet itching. Animal Lice

Even those pets that are not infected can become infected with these parasites.
happen on the street. This can happen as follows:

  • In contact with street animals;
  • When grooming or cutting, if the tools were
    are infected with insects;
  • Upon contact of the host with homeless animals infected

IMPORTANT! All types of lice are
specific to their carriers. Therefore, a person cannot get infected
lice, and the pet can not become infected with human parasites.

What size lice are

The smallest parasite:

  • Hopleplevra tenacious. This is a louse that lives on the home, field
    mouse and hamsters. The insect has a body length of 0.8-1 mm in males and
    1-1.4 mm in females .;
  • Pubic louse also has a small body size – from 1.5
    up to 2 mm. Pubic louse

Medium sized parasites are:

  • Linogat sheep It lives on different parts of the body of domestic sheep.
    Reach from 2.1 mm. up to 2.8 mm. in length;
  • Linogat is bristly. Lives on domestic dogs and cats. Sometimes
    found in some varieties of foxes. Body length from 1.8 mm.
    up to 2.4 mm .;
  • Horse hematopina live on domestic donkeys and horses. Body length
    from 3 mm. up to 3.5 mm .; Linognat bristly

The largest parasites:

  • Pork hematopine. The length of the female is 5 mm., The male is 4 mm.
  • Head louse Body length is 2-4 mm.;
  • Cootie. Body length from 3.7 mm. 4.7 mm. Head Louse

Types of lice depending on color

There are parasites of the following colors:

  • Brown;
  • Red;
  • Gray;
  • The black.


Most lice have different shades of brown. Sometimes
there are even insects of yellowish tinges, such as
sheep lignath Most animal parasites have
exactly this coloring. Brown


This color has only one type of lice – hematopin
pork. Most of the parasite’s trunk is colored from
red to dark pink. On the sides of the calf there are dark
stains. red

Also a red tint can acquire the body of the parasite,
eating blood right after he bit his


Head and body louses have this color. First
the species has a darker shade. cootie

The black

Sometimes black individuals are found among the head parasites. Such
the color of chitin is due to the temperature at which the eggs developed
insects. If a person caught a louse in a very cold, or
on the contrary, a very warm period of time, then each new generation
will have a darker color. Temperature drops make
the body of the insect excrete more pigment. Although. At the very
In fact, louse remains gray, but an increased amount of pigment
makes our eye see a black insect in front of us.

Types of lice – depending on the appearance

The body of parasites has a flattened shape. Paws relatively
short but very tenacious, allowing insects to hold tight
on a person or animal. Usually they have three pairs.

The body of the lice, like other insects, consists of three parts:
head, chest and abdomen. The head has an angular oval shape,
tapering at the front of the pair
antennae and a pair of simple eyes. On the front of the head is located
oral opening. Lice

The chest of parasites has a trapezoidal shape and consists of 3 closely
connected segments, each of which is connected by a pair
paws. At the end of each foot is a well-developed mobile.
claw, forming a likeness claw.

In general, all types of lice have the same structure. therefore
they can be separated only by the shape of the chest and abdomen:

  • Oval (or ovoid) shape. Like u
    head or body parasites; cootie
  • A form resembling a diamond. This form
    have, for example, pubic lice. pubic

Wings for lice are completely absent. Once upon a time
these parasites had wings, but in the course of evolution and acquisition
parasitic way of life, lost them as unnecessary. If you
meet an insect with wings, know that it is definitely not a louse.

What are the nits (larvae) of all kinds

The appearance of the larvae resemble small capsules. Shell such
the capsule consists of a sticky substance with which the nit
attached to the hair. On top of the capsule is a small hole,
closed lid. Hatching, the louse pushes the lid out and gets out
shell. Nit

REFERENCE. All parts of the nits capsule can be considered.
only under the microscope. Without such an increase, empty capsules and with
developing parasite inside for our eyes look the same.

The growth of nits occurs within 7-8 days at a temperature of 30
degrees of heat. Larvae sizes depend on the species to which they are
relate. In any case, the size of the nits will be within
from 0.5 mm. (pubic and mouse parasites) up to 0.8 mm. at the largest
species (pork, wardrobe and head varieties).

How you can get and the main symptoms

Anyone or an animal can become infected with lice. Some
believe that pediculosis is a messy disease. But this is not the case.
Parasites do not care where to settle. You can catch lice only
upon contact with an infected person or his personal belongings (if it is worn
or pubic parasites).

Symptoms of infection

  • Persistent itching;
  • Rash directly at bite sites;
  • Hairbrushes (appear after prolonged infection with lice);
  • The appearance of nits on the hair.


How to treat pediculosis and get rid of parasites

Before choosing a medicine worth
consult with the doctor who will prescribe the most effective
a course of treatment.

Drugs and drugs

  • Pair Plus The drug is sprayed from the roots to
    hair ends and wait 10-15 minutes. After that carefully
    wash off the remnants of the drug with a shampoo suitable for your type
    hair. Para-Plus has high toxicity, therefore it is forbidden for
    children under 2.5 years old .; Couple plus
  • Parasidosis. Before starting the procedure hair
    slightly moistened, then applied over the entire length of the hair and
    leave for 10 minutes. After that, the hair is again moistened with water and
    rub the drug into the skin. After 5 minutes, the head must be carefully
    rinse with shampoo; Parasidosis
  • Medfoks. The drug is applied to the affected
    patches of skin and rubbed with soft movements. Flush medicine
    need in 20 minutes using shampoo. To eliminate completely
    lice, the procedure must be repeated many times. Medifox

IMPORTANT! Medfoks need to use only
a place to avoid side effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and
severe intoxication.

Mechanical method

This method should be supplemented with drugs or
folk remedies. After you use the main
medicine, you need to literally comb out the hair lice and nits. For
It uses a metal comb. Procedure needed
repeat as many times as you use the main drug.


  • VEDA-2. Shampoo Russian production.
    The tool is applied to wet hair and lasts about 50-60 minutes.
    then washed off. Enough 1 application. But to be
    confident that all parasites have died, you can repeat
    procedure after 12 days; Veda
  • Hygia Lather hair from root to tip
    shampoo and leave for 30 minutes. After that, rinse thoroughly.
    hair and comb parasites comb. Shampoo Manufacturer –
    Bulgaria. Hygia Shampoo

Folk remedies

The most popular and effective means are:

  • A mixture of kerosene with water in a ratio of 1: 3;
  • Tar soap; tar soap
  • Essential oils: lavender, tea tree.
    tea tree oil and lavender oil with almond oil

All the above products are applied to wet hair and
leave for 30-40 minutes, after which they brush their hair from lice and
nits metal comb. Did you find out more for yourself
useful information about lice? Yes No pediculosis infection can be
very unpleasant and dangerous. Therefore, do not pull and wait
while insects will breed. Choose any of the above.
means, and remove the parasites as soon as possible.

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