Vitiligo: causes, symptoms and methods treatment

Vitiligo is a skin disorder characterized by a disorder.
natural pigmentation and the appearance of milky white
depigmented areas on the skin. Spots are most often
symmetrically, they have different outlines and sizes, and
show a tendency to marginal growth. Different disease
called leucoderma. Translated from Latin, it means “white
skin “. According to statistics, vitiligo suffers up to 1% of the population
planets regardless of nationality or race. More often
the disease manifests itself in childhood and young from 10 to 30
years old.

As a result of the disease, some areas of the skin lose
natural pigmentation. Depigmented skin
alternate with normal skin, which creates a mottled effect. By this
For some reason in Russia, the disease was called “pes”.


  • Causes of disease
  • Symptoms of Vitiligo
  • Diagnosis of the disease
  • Vitiligo treatment
  • Prediction and prevention of the disease

Causes of disease

Unfortunately, the causes of the disease and the mechanism of action of vitiligo
So far, not completely determined. It is assumed that some
The following factors may play a role in the appearance of the disease:

  • genetic predisposition (hereditary factor);
  • autoimmune processes in the body;
  • endocrine disorders (thyroid malfunction
    glands, pituitary, gonads, adrenal glands);
  • violation of the formation of melanin in the melanocytes of the skin;
  •  psycho-emotional disorders.

Experts suggest that the cause of vitiligo is hidden, as
and in most cases skin pigmentation, in violation of education
melanin in melanocytes of the skin. Natural skin color is caused by
melanocytes that contain melanin pigment. Healthy melanocytes
must contain a specific set of enzymes that
promote the conversion of tyrosine (amino acid) into the pigment
melanin.  If this process is disrupted, the melanocytes are damaged and
melanin pigment is not produced.

The version may also be very plausible.
autoimmune processes occurring in the body. Malfunctions
immune systems lead to the production of auto-aggressive clones
killer cells against healthy, well-functioning cells
organism. This process leads to damage to melanocytes and
the occurrence of autoimmune pathologies.

Researchers considered an infectious viral version
pigmentation disorders. It was assumed that some viruses, penetrating into
skin, cause depigmented areas or
hyperpigmentation. Alternatively, skin depigmentation may cause
bacterial infections, under the action of harmful proteins produced
bacteria. But these versions were not confirmed.

While it is impossible to reliably determine the cause leading to
development of vitiligo, and stop at one of the above

Vitiligo is not an infectious disease, is not transmitted
when contacting people with each other, neither
by airborne droplets. The disease is equally occurring
both in men and women.

Symptoms of Vitiligo

The disease has a chronic and gradual course. She’s not
is associated with a genetic mutation and does not develop in children
preschool age. Vitiligo is extremely rare in children.
primary and secondary school age. How manifest
disease? Small white spots appear on the skin with clear
configuration, which subsequently increase in size and
seek to merge with each other.

Spots can form in different zones, but most often they
appear on open skin areas. Sometimes foci of damage
are formed symmetrically, but there are also unilateral lesions. On
areas where the spots are located, the process of sensitivity is disturbed
and perspiration, the hairs on these areas change their
natural color. When vitiligo patients experience no
painful or unpleasant symptoms other than psychological
discomfort. Spots do not hurt, do not peel off and do not cause itching. how
usually, vitiligo does not form on the mucous membranes, palms and

There are different forms of vitiligo: with multiple, single and
universal lesions. The most severe form is considered
universal skin lesion when complete
depigmentation of the skin. In some cases, spontaneous
the disappearance of spots on some sites. Patients with vitiligo not
sunbathing is recommended as it emphasizes
the contrast of healthy skin (on which pigmentation is formed) and
depigmented areas. Besides some research
revealed the sensitivity of the depigmented areas to
ultraviolet radiation.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of vitiligo is not difficult because
the disease has very specific symptoms.
Diagnose the disease based on the clinical picture. Stains at
Vitiligo never form scales, flaking or atrophy. Should
just do not confuse vitiligo with leucoderma syphilitic
origin. Leucoderma is a depigmented
spots in the form of a grid, but, unlike vitiligo, there are other
the signs. For example, the defeat of the mucous membranes. In this case
You can always make a blood test for Wasserman reaction (method
diagnosis of syphilis).

Vitiligo treatment

To date, there is no effective medicinal
means that can eliminate the cause and symptoms of the disease. but
it should not be forgotten that vitiligo is often the result of more
serious systemic illness. Given this fact, the patient
prescribed drugs that improve metabolic processes in
skin, as well as photochemicals that directly affect
the formation and exchange of melanin pigment.

Especially effective is local therapy in combination with
physiotherapeutic procedures. Irradiation is performed
depigmented skin areas with ultraviolet light.
It is proved that PUVA therapy, the essence of which is to use
various drugs together with skin irradiation
longwave ultraviolet radiation is the most
effective in treating vitiligo. How does this happen? Skin first
processed by special preparations, and then produced
exposure. The treatment is long lasting and includes
several courses with short breaks to achieve
and pinning the maximum effect.

In some cases, a good effect is given by the use of hormonal
drugs and balanced vitamin complexes. However should
remember that hormones should only be taken by
prescription and in the absence of contraindications.

Also in the complex therapy it is advisable to include
immunomodulatory drugs (immunal, etc.). Very effective
medicinal products containing a complex of trace elements, and
especially copper in combination with ascorbic acid.

The surgical method of elimination is very common abroad.
vitiligo. It consists in transplanting donor healthy skin,
pretreated PUVA therapy.

Prediction and prevention of the disease

Most often, vitiligo is not treatable. For this reason
the prognosis of the disease is unfavorable, since it directly depends on
elimination of symptoms, which is very difficult to do. Modern methods
treatments can only halt the formation process
depigmented plots, however completely eliminate them for now
is impossible. But this does not mean that it will be impossible in
the future. The big plus is the fact that vitiligo doesn’t bring
physical suffering to the patient, does not affect his health,
state of health and performance. The disease only brings
psychological discomfort, but it is not
irreparable. Pigmentation can be corrected with the help of
for tanning or using foundation creams.

Disease prevention is about keeping healthy
Lifestyle: the use of tonic, sports,
balanced nutrition with plenty of vegetables and

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