What are harmful and dangerous lice, carriers of some diseases they are, consequences and complications

Lice are one of the most dangerous parasites for humans. Besides
discomfort from persistent itch small bloodsucking insects
able to carry a number of infectious diseases that
lack of timely treatment can result in fatal
the outcome. During a bite, the louse injects active enzymes into the puncture.
to thin the blood. On insect venom the immune system can
react inadequately – antibodies often infect healthy cells
of an organism, leading to an allergic reaction.
Such an outcome is especially dangerous for children of preschool age.

How can you get head lice symptoms?

The content of the article:

  • How can you get head lice symptoms?
  • What will happen if you do not lice?
  • What are dangerous lice on the head for a person and the harm of nits?
  • What diseases carry lice?
  • Lice – consequences and complications, is it possible to die from
  • Other types of lice and diseases they tolerate
  • How to deal with the parasite and possible treatments?
  • Pediculosis prevention

Louse, affects the scalp, per minute overcomes
distance up to 35 cm. At this speed, the parasite crawls quickly
from sick person to healthy. Crawling insect
capable of only on a rough surface. Her exoskeleton is not
equipped with necessary growths, so the louse does not move on
smooth objects.

Infection with pediclosis occurs when visiting public

  • hospitals;
  • camps;
  • swimming pool;
  • transport;
  • shopping centers;
  • clothing stores;
  • schools, universities, office.

public places

Transmission of parasitic disease is possible with
using other personal hygiene items or clothing: combs,
towels, hats. Infection can occur,
if you spend in bed, where the sick person spent the night less than 24 hours

IMPORTANT. Parasites may live for a while
human body. When released into the water, they can live for 48 hours.
without food. During this period, insects must find a person without

Lice can be detected with the naked eye. They can be confused with
dandruff, but when pressed with nail plates exoskeleton
the insect crumbles and produces a peculiar crunch. Other symptoms
pudiculosis are considered:

  • the presence of eggs and adults on the skin,
    scalp, clothing;
  • severe itching due to reason
    multiple parasite bites and allergies
  • skin irritation in different parts of the body,
  • infectious diseases emerging
    due to parasitic invasion;
  • appearance of sores on the head and body.

severe itching

High intensity itching occurs with bites.
lice, mild irritation occurs when pubic infection
parasites. Over time, people become accustomed to bites.
and they become less sensitive. Lice breed with a high
speed, so with the defeat of at least one family member
it is necessary to inspect the head and clothing of all those present
the presence of head lice.

What will happen if you do not lice?

In the absence of timely treatment of pediculosis
gradually become chronic. Colony of parasites
will begin to grow, the number of bites increase. Skin will start
hematomas will appear in the habitats of lice.
Bites will no longer be painful, the rash will become tolerable.
do not treat lice

As the colony grows, the risk of infection increases.
infectious disease. Perhaps the development of pyoderma –
purulent inflammatory skin lesions.

What are dangerous lice on the head for a person and the harm of nits?

Head louse becomes dangerous with large sprawl
the colony. In addition to discomfort there is pain and itching in places.
bite. The louse makes a puncture with the help of needles in the oral apparatus and
throws into the wound enzymes that cause an allergic reaction.
Parasitic invasion is accompanied by the development of skin inflammation on
scalp. At hit on a bite site of infection
an abscess appears. than dangerous

As the itch increases, the person begins to itch,
hurting thin skin. As a result, the skin
peel off, overgrown with scab. Hair nutrition worsens
follicles, hair becomes brittle. In addition, persistent itching and
parasite migrations lead to the development of neuropsychic
disorders The patient is disturbed sleep, there is a feeling
anxiety, reduced performance and deteriorating concentration

What diseases carry lice?

Small insects carry a number of infectious diseases:

  • brucellosis;
  • typhoid fever;
  • tuberculosis;
  • listeriosis;
  • salmonellosis;
  • plague;
  • tularemia;
  • flu viruses.


When symptoms of infectious and inflammatory
diseases against pediculosis should be immediately sought for
medical care. It is possible to determine the type of pathologies
only after passing instrumental studies and passing
laboratory tests.

Can there be typhoid lice?

Lice tolerate 2 types of typhoid: returnable and sypny.

Relapsing fever

Relapsing typhus suffer head and ward
lice. The pathological process is characterized by a strong
fever, which alternates with periods of remission. Infectious
spirochetes or borrelia invade the bloodstream
person when scratching wounds or biting lice. typhus

Microorganisms enter the lymph, where they begin to actively
multiply. After the spirochete colony grows
return to the bloodstream. As a result, Borrelia causes
disorder of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Are observed
following symptoms:

  • high fever
    fever, gagging, headaches;
  • microinfarcts with the development of bleeding;
  • disruption of the spleen and liver, which
    manifested as jaundice and skin rashes;
  • heart and respiratory failure.

After recovery, no persistent immunity is formed.
re-development of the disease.


Typhus develops when rickettsiae enter the blood,
that tolerate blood sucking parasites. Usually a man
infected by body lice, in rare cases a temporary host
pathogenic bacteria acts head louse. Infection penetrates into
blood flow during insect bite. Rickettsia cause
warty endocarditis that is characterized by thrombus formation with
subsequent blockage of the affected vessel. Relapsing fever

Usually, bacteria actively proliferate in capillaries,
localized in the subcutaneous fat. Because of this arise
skin rashes.

REFERENCE. In rare cases, pathogens
microorganisms infect the arteries of the brain, provoking
development of meningoencephalitis. After recovery in the body
human immunity is sustained.

The incubation period lasts about 2 weeks. Symptoms appear

  • fever;
  • clouding of consciousness, fainting;
  • chills;
  • severe headaches.

severe headaches

Typhoid fever is dangerous by the development of complications arising from
of cardio-vascular system.


Volin fever suffer louses.
A person becomes infected when saliva or feces enter the blood.
insect. The course of the disease takes place with alternating periods
remission and aggravation. The incubation period lasts from 7 to 20
days During this time there is a strong chill and
fever. A person suffers from pain in the eyes, aching pain in
joints and muscle weakness. Papules appear on the skin,
the liver and spleen increase in size, problems begin with
vessels. Quintan

IMPORTANT. Volyn fever does not lead to
lethal. Recovery occurs suddenly.


Tularemia is tolerated not only by small rodents, but also by
blood-sucking insects. With the development of infectious
diseases on the background of pediculosis increase lymph nodes,
rash appears, fever. There are signs of acute
intoxication characterized by vomiting and dizziness. By
external manifestations of tularemia is similar to the plague. Tularemia

Chronic Pediculosis

Hazard occurs when acute form of head lice
flows into the chronic. In this case, you can see
change in the structure of epithelial tissue. The skin is rough,
loses elasticity. The stratum corneum from dead cells thickens,
a scab appears. Numerous wounds after insect bites
cause reddening of the skin. The body stops responding
for itching. Chronic Pediculosis

Chronic pediculosis involves the growth of a colony. Such
the disease is characteristic of people living in unfavorable
setting. In the absence of the necessary treatment and with
improper hygiene there is a risk of developing dangerous

Do lice suffer from HIV and hepatitis?

Hepatitis virus and HIV infection when released into the environment
begin to collapse. Even with the transfer of blood of an infected person
to the new host, the parasite is not able to transmit dangerous diseases,
because viral RNA begins to split instantly out
organism. In addition, lice do not inject the patient’s blood into others.
people. Therefore, pathogens of dangerous pathologies such as HIV
or hepatitis cannot be transmitted along with head lice.
Do lice carry HIV

What are dangerous lice for children?

Children’s body more susceptible to poisons
insects. Despite their small size, lice can
inject a toxic substance into the blood. Adult’s immune system
human easily copes with the pathogen and instantly eliminates it with
using white blood cells. But the child’s immunity is weak – he is not capable
produce the required amount of antibodies and respond adequately
to get a strong allergen in the body. What are dangerous lice for children

As a result, lice may trigger development.
severe allergic reaction. Pathological process
accompanied by the appearance of skin rash, swelling, itching. In rare
In cases of possible development of migraine, enlarged lymph nodes and
the occurrence of anaphylactic shock.

IMPORTANT. The most dangerous lice for children who are not
Were timely vaccination. In the absence of vaccinations, the child
quickly becomes infected with severe infections: tuberculosis, brucellosis,
typhus and other diseases.

Lice – consequences and complications, is it possible to die from

Pediculosis causes not only discomfort, but can also
lead to the development of complications. Mouth apparatus of parasites
is a long tube with a sharp tip, thanks
which the louse easily pierces the epithelial layer of the skin and
gets to capillary vessels. At the time of the bite insect
injects wounds with special toxins. is it possible to die from lice

Chemical compounds are digestive
enzymes that inhibit the blood coagulation system.
The liquid cannot coagulate, so the insect drinks blood calmly.
a long time. At the same time, these enzymes are starting to annoy
skin, which provokes an instant reaction of the immune system.
There is a focus of inflammation, which is infected. Gradually
inside the puncture formed purulent exudate, appear on the skin
itchy ulcers.

Pediculosis can lead to the following unpleasant

  • flaking of the scalp,
  • the development of dermatitis, ulcers and hematomas in the field
    growth of a colony of parasites;
  • infection in the wound may result in infection
    infectious diseases;
  • the appearance of boils, abscess,
  • nervousness increases, sleep is disturbed, man
    becomes irritable;
  • weakens immune system, decreases
  • deteriorating hair condition.


The unpleasant effects of head lice
gradually. They appear in the absence of treatment. TO
lethal pediculosis does not cause. But parasitic invasion
can cause the development of infectious diseases representing
threat to life in the absence of timely treatment.

Can hair fall out because of lice?

Lice are a group of bloodsucking insects that
pierce the scalp and do not affect the hair follicles.
Sores and skin irritation at puncture sites can bleed and
stop hair growth. At the same time, alopecia is not observed.
Hair may dull, become brittle due to
inadequate nutrition of bulbs, but do not fall out. from hair loss

Allergy to lice

During the bite, blood sucking parasites inject into the wound
digestive enzymes to keep blood from clotting. These
toxic compounds cause local irritation, which is why
the immune system begins to produce antibodies. In people,
predisposed to the development of allergy, itching begins throughout
body, rash and red spots appear on the skin. In some
In cases of possible anaphylactic reaction.
Allergy to lice

Temperature at pediculosis

High fever with pediculosis means that the wound
an infection has hit and a generalized inflammatory has begun
process. The immune system begins to produce antibodies,
that attack pathogens. Thermoregulation center in
the brain raises body temperature to inhibit growth and
further reproduction of bacteria. When the temperature rises
+ 38 ° C urgently need to consult a doctor. temperature

Other types of lice and diseases they tolerate

Parasitic invasion of a person with lice can be of three types:

  • head lice that form colonies on
    scalp; head lice
  • body lice settling on clothes;
  • pubic lice – found in the genital area
    organs. pubic lice

Lice lay eggs only in their habitats. For
reproduction they need a temperature not lower than + 15 ° C. Larvae
hatch within a week and replenish the existing colony
parasites. Adult lifespan is
about 40 days.

What disease carrier is louse?

The body louse is the largest parasite compared to
head and pubic insects of its kind. She hides in the seams
and folds of clothes, where he lays eggs. These are dangerous parasites,
that carry dangerous diseases: typhus and relapsing fever,
Volyn fever, tuberculosis. Bite likelihood
transmission of infection is over 80%. cootie

Wardrobe lice is accompanied by the development of intolerable.
itching that spreads throughout the body. Rash
occur over the entire surface of the skin. On the site of healing ulcers
nevus pigmentosis appears, which, if untreated
acquire a bluish tint.

With parasitic invasion, an increase in temperature is observed,
signs of intoxication:

  • headache;
  • weakness;
  • increased fatigue, loss of performance;
  • nausea.


When suppuration of a large area of ​​the skin worsens
psycho-emotional state of the patient.

Phyriasis or pubic lice

Pubic pediculosis affects the groin area, where
pubic hair grows. Rashes are localized near
genital organs, on the mucous membranes of the anus. With
the prolonged course of the disease affects the hair
armpits, lice fall on the eyelashes and eyebrows. Region
ftyriaza itching severely, there is a burning sensation on the genital
organs. At defeat of eyelashes eyes begin to be scratched. pubic lice

How to deal with the parasite and possible treatments?

When confirming the diagnosis, you must wash all your clothes,
bed linen and towels at + 90 ° C. Such
conditions, not only lice die, but also pathogens,
which carry the parasites. If head lice was detected in the winter,
It is recommended to take washed bedding to frost. Nits
also die at temperatures below -5 ° C. Required
disinfect with alcohol or rinse with a comb boiling water,
gum and hairpins.

To combat parasites, 2 treatment methods are used:

  1. Mechanical. Hot water rinse
    With tar soap or shampoo, rinsing long hair while
    temperature + 55 ° C. Blow-dry for half an hour, combing
    metal brush. Washing head
  2. Chemical. Scalp treatment
    insecticide followed by combing parasites. Fatty hair

The disinfestation must be prescribed by the attending physician.
The specialist will help to establish the dosage and duration of use.
drug. Self acquire
medicines are not recommended due to the high risk of development
side effects with improper use of the drug. Doctors
Permethrin-based medication is usually prescribed: Medifox,
Nittifor. These are the least toxic drugs for humans. AT
in some cases, an additional aerosol agent is used.
Pair Plus But it contains organophosphate malate,
which has a negative effect on the liver. Medifox

IMPORTANT. Together with drug therapy is necessary
wash your head with a special shampoo. Drugs do not take in
time of pregnancy and lactation, in children up to 3 years. Such
situations use shampoo to clean hair or resort to
mechanical method of getting rid of lice.

You can not use the same drug or shampoo
for the treatment of pediculosis more than 3 times. During washing
head insecticide need to wear gloves. After application
means it is necessary to comb out the dead parasites and their eggs no less
2 times a day. After using the shampoo you should not wash your hair in
within 48 hours.

Pediculosis prevention

To prevent parasitic invasion, measures should be taken

  • keep the apartment clean: hold 2 times
    weekly wet cleaning
  • prevent children from putting on other people’s clothes, 1-2 times
    a month to inspect the scalp of a child for
  • wash and iron clothes, hats;
  • to care for hair: wash your hair, cut
    regrown tips;
  • change bed and underwear


Strict adherence to preventive measures can be on time
prevent the appearance of lice, the development of head lice and reduce the risk
the occurrence of dangerous infectious pathologies.

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