Cat scratch disease is an infectious disease that
occurs as a result of bites and scratches of cats. From the title
it can be understood that the disease develops after close contact with
a cat. For the first time about the disease became known 80 years ago, but a long
time identification of the pathogen and the mechanism of development of the disease
presented difficulties and doubt. Researchers could not identify
pathogen from the blood of a sick person. And only by the age of 80
microorganisms were accurately identified in the last century,
causing cat scratch disease.
Another name for pathology is felinosis derived from the Latin word.
felinus – feline. Feline Scratch Disease or Granulema Mollare –
it is an acute infectious disease that belongs to a class
Bartonella. The causative agent of the disease was isolated from the blood home
cats They carry a flea infection. The disease has a clear
interrelated with cat scratches and bites, characterized by
the appearance of a local lesion, inflammation of the lymphatic
nodes, general intoxication of the body and damage to internal
organs. If a person has strong immunity, then the disease
is not dangerous, and tends to pass by itself.
- The reasons
The disease develops as a result of infection.
microorganisms Bartonella henselae, Rochalimaea henselae.
The source of infection is domestic cats, as well as other
mammals living in the wild. The disease has a big
geographic spectrum and is found in various climacteric
latitudes. In temperate countries, the peak of disease occurs with
September to March. Most often, young people are infected.
21 years old. Infection is not transmitted from person to person.
The causative agent of the disease enters the body through scratches,
bites and mucous membranes, in other words through the damaged
skin A localized lesion is formed on the skin (primary affect).
Then, through the bloodstream, the pathogen enters the regional
lymph nodes, causing their inflammation (lymphadenitis). Lymphadenitis
characterized by hyperplasia, the formation of granulomas and even
abscesses. Very often the disease is accompanied by involvement in
pathological process of other organs and systems: liver,
gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system,
of cardio-vascular system. Usually this picture is observed in
people with immunodeficiency (AIDS, syphilis).
The disease has two forms:
Typical form begins 5-10 days after contact with
cat and is characterized by the appearance of a bite on the spot slightly
swollen spot. A couple of days in his place there
a bubble, and after a couple of days the bubble disappears, and in its place
ulceration appears. After a certain time (may pass
a few days or even months) regional inflammation (most
close to ulcer) lymph node. The node grows in size and
causes pain sensations, body temperature rises, appears
weakness, headache, and profuse sweating. Usually symptoms
diseases keep within 7-10 days, then a condition of the patient
improves, but the disease becomes intermittent and
lasts about six months. The lymph node slowly resolves, but if
there was his suppuration, the node is opened in the medical
Atypical form occurs in the form:
- Parino syndrome;
- brain damage;
- bone inflammation.
Parino syndrome is manifested by unilateral conjunctivitis with
ulceration and nodules on the upper eyelid, fever, increase
regional lymph nodes.
With neuroretinitis, unilateral vision loss occurs.
Brain damage has very serious consequences:
the patient’s condition deteriorates: headache begins
up to loss of consciousness and coma.
The disease is diagnosed by the clinical picture, the results
collected history and laboratory studies. For accurate
diagnosis of the disease is carried out:
- skin test;
- microbiological research (seeding material on nutrient
- lymph node biopsy followed by examination
lymph node biopsy;
- a study of the contents of papules followed by histological
- using the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) carry out
puncture of the lymph node for the detection of the 16S gene by RNA cD
- serological diagnostics by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
for the detection of antibodies to the pathogen);
- complete blood count is performed to determine the amount
eosinophils, leukocytes, increased ROE (sedimentation reaction
red blood cells).
Differentiate felinosis from tularemia (its skin-bubonic form),
lymphogranulomatosis, lymph node tuberculosis, bacterial
The typical form of felinosis lasts several months (more often 1-2
month) and docked independently. However, the use of adequate
treatment can help the body cope faster with the ailment.
Treatment of all forms of phelinosis is carried out with antibiotic therapy.
Also used antihistamines. Etiotropic therapy
(treatment aimed at eliminating the cause of
diseases) are used in the atypical form of this pathology. Special
the complexity is the treatment of fellinoza in persons with immunodeficiency
conditions (AIDS, syphilis, autoimmune diseases). AT
if there is an abscess of the lymph nodes
dissection followed by drainage.
Prognosis and prevention
With a typical form of phelinosis, the prognosis is favorable. Danger
represents an atypical form of the disease in persons with immunodeficiency
Disease prevention is to protect the skin from feline
bites and scratches. If, however, bites and scratches did not work
to avoid then it is imperative to disinfect
received wounds with special disinfectants.
Preventive treatment of cats is not carried out due to